Abstract:
Hyperspherical partial wave approach has been applied here in the study of double photoionization of the helium atom for equal energy sharing geometry at 20 eV excess energy. Calculations have been done both in length and velocity gauges and are found to agree with each other, with the CCC results and with experiments and exhibit some advantages of the corresponding three particle wave function over other wave functions in use.

Abstract:
Hyperspherical partial wave theory has been applied here in a new way in the calculation of the triple differential cross sections for the ionization of hydrogen atoms by electron impact at low energies for various equal-energy-sharing kinematic conditions. The agreement of the cross section results with the recent absolute measurements of R\"oder \textit {et al} [51] and with the latest theoretical results of the ECS and CCC calculations [29] for different kinematic conditions at 17.6 eV is very encouraging. The other calculated results, for relatively higher energies, are also generally satisfactory, particularly for large $\Theta_{ab}$ geometries. In view of the present results, together with the fact that it is capable of describing unequal-energy-sharing kinematics [35], it may be said that the hyperspherical partial wave theory is quite appropriate for the description of ionization events of electron-hydrogen type systems. It is also clear that the present approach in the implementation of the hyperspherical partial wave theory is very appropriate.

Abstract:
In terms of the basic idea of combining dynamical and statistical methods in short-term climate prediction, a new prediction method of predictor-based error correction (PREC) is put forward in order to effectively use statistical experiences in dynamical prediction. Analyses show that the PREC can reasonably utilize the significant correlations between predictors and model prediction errors and correct prediction errors by establishing statistical prediction model. Besides, the PREC is further applied to the cross-validation experiments of dynamical seasonal prediction on the operational atmosphere-ocean coupled general circulation model of China Meteorological Administration/ National Climate Center by selecting the sea surface temperature index in Ni o3 region as the physical predictor that represents the prevailing ENSO-cycle mode of interannual variability in climate system. It is shown from the prediction results of summer mean circulation and total precipitation that the PREC can improve predictive skills to some extent. Thus the PREC provides a new approach for improving short-term climate prediction.

Abstract:
Quantum error-correction routines are developed for continuous quantum variables such as position and momentum. The result of such analog quantum error correction is the construction of composite continuous quantum variables that are largely immune to the effects of noise and decoherence.

Abstract:
We describe new implementations of quantum error correction that are continuous in time, and thus described by continuous dynamical maps. We evaluate the performance of such schemes using numerical simulations, and comment on the effectiveness and applicability of continuous error correction for quantum computing.

Abstract:
This paper is an expanded and more detailed version of our recent work in which the Operator Quantum Error Correction formalism was introduced. This is a new scheme for the error correction of quantum operations that incorporates the known techniques - i.e. the standard error correction model, the method of decoherence-free subspaces, and the noiseless subsystem method - as special cases, and relies on a generalized mathematical framework for noiseless subsystems that applies to arbitrary quantum operations. We also discuss a number of examples and introduce the notion of ``unitarily noiseless subsystems''.

Abstract:
The purpose of this little survey is to give a simple description of the main approaches to quantum error correction and quantum fault-tolerance. Our goal is to convey the necessary intuitions both for the problems and their solutions in this area. After characterising quantum errors we present several error-correction schemes and outline the elements of a full fledged fault-tolerant computation, which works error-free even though all of its components can be faulty. We also mention alternative approaches to error-correction, so called error-avoiding or decoherence-free schemes. Technical details and generalisations are kept to a minimum.

Abstract:
In classical case there is simplest method of error correction with using three equal bits instead of one. In the paper is shown, how the scheme fails for quantum error correction with complex vector spaces of usual quantum mechanics, but works in real and quaternionic cases. It is discussed also, how to implement the three qubits scheme with using encoding of quaternionic qubit by Majorana spinor. Necessary concepts and formulae from area of quantum error corrections are closely introduced and proved.

Abstract:
Quantum error correction (QEC) and fault-tolerant quantum computation represent one of the most vital theoretical aspect of quantum information processing. It was well known from the early developments of this exciting field that the fragility of coherent quantum systems would be a catastrophic obstacle to the development of large scale quantum computers. The introduction of quantum error correction in 1995 showed that active techniques could be employed to mitigate this fatal problem. However, quantum error correction and fault-tolerant computation is now a much larger field and many new codes, techniques, and methodologies have been developed to implement error correction for large scale quantum algorithms. In response, we have attempted to summarize the basic aspects of quantum error correction and fault-tolerance, not as a detailed guide, but rather as a basic introduction. This development in this area has been so pronounced that many in the field of quantum information, specifically researchers who are new to quantum information or people focused on the many other important issues in quantum computation, have found it difficult to keep up with the general formalisms and methodologies employed in this area. Rather than introducing these concepts from a rigorous mathematical and computer science framework, we instead examine error correction and fault-tolerance largely through detailed examples, which are more relevant to experimentalists today and in the near future.

Abstract:
The errors that arise in a quantum channel can be corrected perfectly if and only if the channel does not decrease the coherent information of the input state. We show that, if the loss of coherent information is small, then approximate error correction is possible.