Abstract:
We describe the emergence of superfluid phases of ultracold dipolar fermions in optical lattices for two-dimensional systems. Considering the many-body screening of dipolar interactions at intermediate and larger filling factors, we show that several superfluid phases with distinct pairing symmetries naturally arise in the singlet channel: local s-wave $(sl)$, extended s-wave $(se)$, d-wave $(d)$ or time-reversal-symmetry breaking $(sl + se \pm id)$-wave. We obtain the temperature versus filling factor phase diagram and show that d-wave pairing is favored near half-filling, that $(sl + se)$-wave is favored near zero or full filling, and that time-reversal-breaking $(sl + se \pm id)$-wave is favored in between. The inclusion of a harmonic trap reveals that a sequence of phases can coexist in the cloud depending on the filling factor at the center of the trap. Most notably in the spatial region where the $(sl + se \pm id)$-wave superfluid occurs, spontaneous currents are generated, and may be detected using velocity sensitive Bragg spectroscopy.

Abstract:
The zero-temperature phase diagrams of imbalanced fermions in 3D optical lattices are investigated to evaluate the validity of the Fermi-Hubbard model. It is found that depending on the filling factor, s-wave scattering strength and lattice potential, the system may fall into the normal($N$) phase, magnetized superfluid(SF$_M$) or phase separation of $N$ and BCS state. By tuning these parameters, the superfluidity could be favorable by enhanced effective couplings or suppressed by the increased band gap. The phase profiles in the presence of a harmonic trap are also investigated under LDA, which show some exotic shell structures compared to those without the optical lattice.

Abstract:
We analyze the effects of imbalancing the populations of two-component trapped fermions in the BEC (strong-coupling) limit of the attractive interaction between fermions of different components. In particular, we derive a set of coupled equations which describe composite bosons and excess fermions in this limit, starting from the gap equation with two different fermionic chemical potentials. Care is used to include in these equations the processes leading to the correct dimer-dimer and dimer-fermion scattering lengths, which require us to consider beyond-mean-field effects. Numerical results are presented for the density profiles of composite bosons and excess fermions. Results for the formation of vortex patterns in the presence of density imbalance are also presented.

Abstract:
We determine the relative stability of different ground-state phases of spin-imbalanced popula- tions of attractive fermions in square lattices. The phases are systematically characterized by the symmetry of the order parameter and the real- and momentum-space structures using Hartree- Fock-Bogoliubov theory. We find several type of unidirectional Larkin-Ovchinikov-type phases. We discuss the effect of commensuration between the ordering wave vector and the density imbalance, and describe the mechanism of Fermi surface reconstruction and pairing for various orders. A robust supersolid phase is shown to exist when the ordering wave vector is diagonally directed.

Abstract:
We consider dipolar fermions in a two-dimensional square lattice and a harmonic trapping potential. The anisotropy of the dipolar interaction combined with the lattice leads to transitions between phases with density order of different symmetries. We show that the attractive part of the dipolar interaction results in a superfluid phase which is suppressed by density order. The trapping potential is demonstrated to make the different phases co-exist, forming ring and island structures. The phases with density and superfluid order can overlap forming regions with supersolid order.

Abstract:
We calculate the density profiles of a trapped spin-imbalanced Fermi gas with attractive interactions in a one-dimensional optical lattice, using both the local density approximation (LDA) and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) simulations. Based on the exact equation of state obtained by Bethe ansatz, LDA predicts that the gas phase-separates into shells with a partially polarized core and fully paired wings, where the latter occurs below a critical spin polarization. This behavior is also seen in numerically exact DMRG calculations at sufficiently large particle numbers. Unlike the continuum case, we show that the critical polarization is a non monotonic function of the interaction strength and vanishes in the limit of large interactions.

Abstract:
We study harmonically trapped, unpolarized fermion systems with attractive interactions in two spatial dimensions with spin degeneracies Nf = 2 and 4 and N/Nf = 1, 3, 5, and 7 particles per flavor. We carry out our calculations using our recently proposed quantum Monte Carlo method on a nonuniform lattice. We report on the ground-state energy and contact for a range of couplings, as determined by the binding energy of the two-body system, and show explicitly how the physics of the Nf-body sector dominates as the coupling is increased.

Abstract:
We study magnetic phases of two-component mixtures of ultracold fermions with repulsive interactions in optical lattices in the presence of hopping imbalance. Our analysis is based on dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) and its real-space generalization at finite temperature. We study the temperature dependence of the transition into the ordered state as a function of the interaction strength and the imbalance parameter in two and three spatial dimensions. We show that below the critical temperature for N\'{e}el order mass-imbalanced mixtures also exhibit a charge-density wave, which provides a directly observable signature of the ordered state. For the trapped system, we compare our results obtained by real-space DMFT to a local-density approximation. We calculate the entropy for a wide range of parameters and identify regions, in which mass-imbalanced mixtures could have clear advantages over balanced ones for the purpose of obtaining and detecting quantum magnetism.

Abstract:
The ground state phase diagram of Fermi-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices is analyzed as a function of interaction strength, population imbalance, filling fraction and tunneling parameters. It is shown that population imbalanced Fermi-Fermi mixtures reduce to strongly interacting Bose-Fermi mixtures in the molecular limit, in sharp contrast to homogeneous or harmonically trapped systems where the resulting Bose-Fermi mixture is weakly interacting. Furthermore, insulating phases are found in optical lattices of Fermi-Fermi mixtures in addition to the standard phase-separated or coexisting superfluid/excess fermion phases found in homogeneous systems. The insulating states can be a molecular Bose-Mott insulator (BMI), a Fermi-Pauli insulator (FPI), a phase-separated BMI/FPI mixture or a Bose-Fermi checkerboard (BFC).

Abstract:
Strongly interacting particles in one dimension subject to external confinement have become a topic of considerable interest due to recent experimental advances and the development of new theoretical methods to attack such systems. In the case of equal mass fermions or bosons with two or more internal degrees of freedom, one can map the problem onto the well-known Heisenberg spin models. However, many interesting physical systems contain mixtures of particles with different masses. Therefore, a generalization of the recent strong-coupling techniques would be highly desirable. This is particularly important since such problems are generally considered non-integrable and thus the hugely successful Bethe ansatz approach cannot be applied. Here we discuss some initial steps towards this goal by investigating small ensembles of one-dimensional harmonically trapped particles where pairwise interactions are either vanishing or infinitely strong with focus on the mass-imbalanced case. We discuss a possible (semi)-analytical approach to describe systems using hyperspherical coordinates where the interaction is effectively decoupled from the trapping potential. As an illustrative example we analyze mass-imbalanced four-particle two-species mixtures with strong interactions between the two species. For such systems we calculate the energies, densities and pair-correlation functions.