Abstract:
Recently the study of Fay-type identities revealed some new features of the DKP hierarchy (also known as ''the coupled KP hierarchy'' and ''the Pfaff lattice''). Those results are now extended to a Toda version of the DKP hierarchy (tentatively called ''the Pfaff-Toda hierarchy''). Firstly, an auxiliary linear problem of this hierarchy is constructed. Unlike the case of the DKP hierarchy, building blocks of the auxiliary linear problem are difference operators. A set of evolution equations for dressing operators of the wave functions are also obtained. Secondly, a system of Fay-like identities (difference Fay identities) are derived. They give a generating functional expression of auxiliary linear equations. Thirdly, these difference Fay identities have well defined dispersionless limit (dispersionless Hirota equations). As in the case of the DKP hierarchy, an elliptic curve is hidden in these dispersionless Hirota equations. This curve is a kind of spectral curve, whose defining equation is identified with the characteristic equation of a subset of all auxiliary linear equations. The other auxiliary linear equations are related to quasi-classical deformations of this elliptic spectral curve.

Abstract:
Recently the study of Fay-type identities revealed some new features of the DKP hierarchy (also known as "the coupled KP hierarchy" and "the Pfaff lattice"). Those results are now extended to a Toda version of the DKP hierarchy (tentatively called "the Pfaff-Toda hierarchy"). Firstly, an auxiliary linear problem of this hierarchy is constructed. Unlike the case of the DKP hierarchy, building blocks of the auxiliary linear problem are difference operators. A set of evolution equations for dressing operators of the wave functions are also obtained. Secondly, a system of Fay-like identities (difference Fay identities) are derived. They give a generating functional expression of auxiliary linear equations. Thirdly, these difference Fay identities have well defined dispersionless limit (dispersionless Hirota equations). As in the case of the DKP hierarchy, an elliptic curve is hidden in these dispersionless Hirota equations. This curve is a kind of spectral curve, whose defining equation is identified with the characteristic equation of a subset of all auxiliary linear equations. The other auxiliary linear equations are related to quasi-classical deformations of this elliptic spectral curve.

Abstract:
We review the notion of differential Fay identities and demonstrate, through case studies, its new role in integrable hierarchies of the KP type. These identities are known to be a convenient tool for deriving dispersionless Hirota equations. We show that differential (or, in the case of the Toda hierarchy, difference) Fay identities play a more fundamental role. Namely, they are nothing but a generating functional expression of the full set of auxiliary linear equations, hence substantially equivalent to the integrable hierarchies themselves. These results are illustrated for the KP, Toda, BKP and DKP hierarchies. As a byproduct, we point out some new features of the DKP hierarchy and its dispersionless limit.

Abstract:
The goal of this paper is to identify the universal Whitham hierarchy of genus zero with a dispersionless limit of the multi-component KP hierarchy. To this end, the multi-component KP hierarchy is (re)formulated to depend on several discrete variables called ``charges''. These discrete variables play the role of lattice coordinates in underlying Toda field equations. A multi-component version of the so called differential Fay identity are derived from the Hirota equations of the $\tau$-function of this ``charged'' multi-component KP hierarchy. These multi-component differential Fay identities have a well-defined dispersionless limit (the dispersionless Hirota equations). The dispersionless Hirota equations turn out to be equivalent to the Hamilton-Jacobi equations for the $S$-functions of the universal Whitham hierarchy. The differential Fay identities themselves are shown to be a generating functional expression of auxiliary linear equations for scalar-valued wave functions of the multi-component KP hierarchy.

Abstract:
The Hamiltonian structure of the two-dimensional dispersionless Toda hierarchy is studied, this being a particular example of a system of hydrodynamic type. The polynomial conservation laws for the system turn out, after a change of variable, to be associated with the axially symmetric solutions of the 3-dimensional Laplace equation and this enables a generating function for the Hamiltonian densities to be derived in closed form.

Abstract:
Given a $C^1$ homeomorphism of the unit circle $\gamma$, let $f$ and $g$ be respectively the normalized conformal maps from the unit disc and its exterior so that $\gamma= g^{-1}\circ f$ on the unit circle. In this article, we show that by suitably defined time variables, the evolutions of the pairs $(g, f)$ and $(g^{-1}, f^{-1})$ can be described by an infinite set of nonlinear partial differential equations known as dispersionless Toda hierarchy. Relations to the integrable structure of conformal maps first studied by Wiegmann and Zabrodin \cite{WZ} are discussed. An extension of the hierarchy which contains both our solution and the solution of \cite{WZ} is defined.

Abstract:
Let $\mathfrak{D}$ be the space consists of pairs $(f,g)$, where $f$ is a univalent function on the unit disc with $f(0)=0$, $g$ is a univalent function on the exterior of the unit disc with $g(\infty)=\infty$ and $f'(0)g'(\infty)=1$. In this article, we define the time variables $t_n, n\in \Z$, on $\mathfrak{D}$ which are holomorphic with respect to the natural complex structure on $\mathfrak{D}$ and can serve as local complex coordinates for $\mathfrak{D}$. We show that the evolutions of the pair $(f,g)$ with respect to these time coordinates are governed by the dispersionless Toda hierarchy flows. An explicit tau function is constructed for the dispersionless Toda hierarchy. By restricting $\mathfrak{D}$ to the subspace $\Sigma$ consists of pairs where $f(w)=1/\bar{g(1/\bar{w})}$, we obtain the integrable hierarchy of conformal mappings considered by Wiegmann and Zabrodin \cite{WZ}. Since every $C^1$ homeomorphism $\gamma$ of the unit circle corresponds uniquely to an element $(f,g)$ of $\mathfrak{D}$ under the conformal welding $\gamma=g^{-1}\circ f$, the space $\text{Homeo}_{C}(S^1)$ can be naturally identified as a subspace of $\mathfrak{D}$ characterized by $f(S^1)=g(S^1)$. We show that we can naturally define complexified vector fields $\pa_n, n\in \Z$ on $\text{Homeo}_{C}(S^1)$ so that the evolutions of $(f,g)$ on $\text{Homeo}_{C}(S^1)$ with respect to $\pa_n$ satisfy the dispersionless Toda hierarchy. Finally, we show that there is a similar integrable structure for the Riemann mappings $(f^{-1}, g^{-1})$. Moreover, in the latter case, the time variables are Fourier coefficients of $\gamma$ and $1/\gamma^{-1}$.

Abstract:
Solutions of the Riemann-Hilbert problem implementing the twistorial structure of the dispersionless Toda (dToda) hierarchy are obtained. Two types of string equations are considered which characterize solutions arising in hodograph sectors and integrable structures of two-dimensional quantum gravity and Laplacian growth problems.

Abstract:
The factorization problem of the multi-component 2D Toda hierarchy is used to analyze the dispersionless limit of this hierarchy. A dispersive version of the Whitham hierarchy defined in terms of scalar Lax and Orlov--Schulman operators is introduced and the corresponding additional symmetries and string equations are discussed. Then, it is shown how KP and Toda pictures of the dispersionless Whitham hierarchy emerge in the dispersionless limit. Moreover, the additional symmetries and string equations for the dispersive Whitham hierarchy are studied in this limit.

Abstract:
This paper is focused on geometric aspects of two particular types of finite-variable reductions in the dispersionless Toda hierarchy. The reductions are formulated in terms of ''Landau-Ginzburg potentials'' that play the role of reduced Lax functions. One of them is a generalization of Dubrovin and Zhang's trigonometric polynomial. The other is a transcendental function, the logarithm of which resembles the waterbag models of the dispersionless KP hierarchy. They both satisfy a radial version of the L wner equations. Consistency of these L wner equations yields a radial version of the Gibbons-Tsarev equations. These equations are used to formulate hodograph solutions of the reduced hierarchy. Geometric aspects of the Gibbons-Tsarev equations are explained in the language of classical differential geometry (Darboux equations, Egorov metrics and Combescure transformations). Flat coordinates of the underlying Egorov metrics are presented.