Abstract:
A three-parameter toy-model, which describes a non-minimal coupling of gravity field with electromagnetic field of a relativistic two-component electrically neutral plasma, is discussed. Resonance interactions between particles and transversal waves in plasma are shown to take place due to the curvature coupling effect.

Abstract:
We employ the influence functional technique to trace out the photonic contribution from full quantum electrodynamics. The reduced density matrix propagator for the spinor field is then constructed. We discuss the role of time-dependent renormalization in the propagator and focus on the possibility of obtaining dynamically induced superselection rules. Finally, we derive the master equation for the case of the field being in an one-particle state in a non-relativistic regime and discuss whether EM vacuumm fluctuations are sufficient to produce decoherence in the position basis.

Abstract:
In this note we provide details of the proofs of the main results of our paper [19] to the standard model of non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics in which particles are minimally coupled to the quantized electromagnetic field at energies below the ionization threshold. Recall that in [19] we proved several lower bounds on the growth of the distance of the escaping photons/phonons to the particle system. Using some of these results, we proved asymptotic completeness (for Rayleigh scattering) on the states for which the expectation of the photon/phonon number is bounded uniformly in time. However, we provided details only for the phonon case.

Abstract:
The analytic solution is obtained describing kinetic equilibrium of the $\beta$-processes in the nucleonic plasma with relativistic pairs. The nucleons $(n,p)$ are supposed to be non-relativistic and non-degenerate, while the electrons and positrons are ultra-relativistic due to high temperature $(T>6\cdot 10^9$K), or high density $(\rho>\mu 10^6$g/cm$^3$), or both, where $\mu$ is a number of nucleons per one electron. The consideration is simplified because of the analytic connection of the density with the electron chemical potential in the ultra-relativistic plasma, and Gauss representation of Fermi functions. Electron chemical potential and number of nucleons per one initial electron are calculated as functions of $\rho$ and $T$.

Abstract:
The electromagnetic fields in Maxwell's theory satisfy linear equations in the classical vacuum. This is modified in classical non-linear electrodynamic theories. To date there has been little experimental evidence that any of these modified theories are tenable. However with the advent of high-intensity lasers and powerful laboratory magnetic fields this situation may be changing. We argue that an approach involving the self-consistent relativistic motion of a smooth fluid-like distribution of matter (composed of a large number of charged or neutral particles) in an electromagnetic field offers a viable theoretical framework in which to explore the experimental consequences of non-linear electrodynamics. We construct such a model based on the theory of Born and Infeld and suggest that a simple laboratory experiment involving the propagation of light in a static magnetic field could be used to place bounds on the fundamental coupling in that theory. Such a framework has many applications including a new description of the motion of particles in modern accelerators and plasmas as well as phenomena in astrophysical contexts such as in the environment of magnetars, quasars and gamma-ray bursts.

Abstract:
We express the unitary time evolution in non-relativistic regularized quantum electrodynamics at zero and positive temperature by a Feynman integral defined in terms of a complex Brownian motion. An average over the quantum electromagnetic field determines the form of the quantum mechanics in an environment of a quantum black body radiation. In this non-perturbative formulation of quantum electrodynamics we prove the existence of the classical limit $\hbar \rightarrow 0$.We estimate an error to some approximations commonly applied in quantum radiation theory.

Abstract:
An effective action technique for the time evolution of a closed system consisting of one or more mean fields interacting with their quantum fluctuations is presented. By marrying large $N$ expansion methods to the Schwinger-Keldysh closed time path (CTP) formulation of the quantum effective action, causality of the resulting equations of motion is ensured and a systematic, energy conserving and gauge invariant expansion about the quasi-classical mean field(s) in powers of $1/N$ developed. The general method is exposed in two specific examples, $O(N)$ symmetric scalar $\l\F^4$ theory and Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) with $N$ fermion fields. The $\l\F^4$ case is well suited to the numerical study of the real time dynamics of phase transitions characterized by a scalar order parameter. In QED the technique may be used to study the quantum non-equilibrium effects of pair creation in strong electric fields and the scattering and transport processes in a relativistic $e^+e^-$ plasma. A simple renormalization scheme that makes practical the numerical solution of the equations of motion of these and other field theories is described.

Abstract:
Spatial localization of the electrons of an atom or molecule is studied in models of non-relativistic matter coupled to quantized radiation. We give two definitions of the ionization threshold. One in terms of spectral data of cluster Hamiltonians, and one in terms of minimal energies of non-localized states. We show that these two definitions agree, and that the electrons described by a state with energy below the ionization threshold are localized in a small neighborhood of the nuclei with a probability that approaches 1 exponentially fast with increasing radius of the neighborhood. The latter result is derived from a new, general result on exponential decay tailored to fit our problem, but applicable to many non-relativistic quantum systems outside quantum electrodynamics as well.

Abstract:
A physical subspace and physical Hilbert space associated with asymptotic fields of nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics are constructed through the Gupta-Bleuler procedure. Asymptotic completeness is shown and a physical Hamiltonian is defined on the physical Hilbert space.

Abstract:
A two-temperature thermal non-equilibrium model is developed and applied to the three-dimensional and time-dependent simulation of the flow inside a DC arc plasma torch. A detailed comparison of the results of the non-equilibrium model with those of an equilibrium model is presented. The fluid and electromagnetic equations in both models are approximated numerically in a fully-coupled approach by a variational multi-scale finite element method. In contrast to the equilibrium model, the non-equilibrium model did not need a separate reattachment model to produce an arc reattachment process and to limit the magnitude of the total voltage drop and arc length. The non-equilibrium results show large non-equilibrium regions in the plasma - cold-flow interaction region and close to the anode surface. Marked differences in the arc dynamics, especially in the arc reattachment process, and in the magnitudes of the total voltage drop and outlet temperatures and velocities between the models are observed. The non-equilibrium results show improved agreement with experimental observations.