Abstract:
The present work implements the idea that gravity is not a fundamental force and that the observed gravitational dynamics is the result of inertial motions within a Keplerian velocity field of the Higgs Quantum Space (HQS), giving mass and ruling the inertial motions of matter-energy. The Higgs theory introduces profound changes in the current view about the nature of empty space. It introduces the idea that a real quantum fluid medium, filling up the whole of space, gives mass to the elementary particles by the Higgs mechanism, an effect analogous to the Meissner effect, giving mass to the photons within superconductors. This HQS necessarily governs the inertial motion of matter-energy and is the locally ultimate reference for rest and for motions. The HQS materializes the local Lorentz frames (LFs), turning them into local proper LFs, intrinsically stationary with respect to the local moving HQS. This HQS also necessarily is responsible for the gravitational dynamics; because it is mass that creates the gravitational fields. The observed absence of the gravitational slowing of the GPS clocks by the solar field and the absence of light anisotropy with respect to the moving earth are both obvious signatures of the true physical mechanism of gravity. These observations demonstrate that the HQS is circulating round the sun and round earth according to Keplerian velocity fields (GM/r)^{1/2}, closely consistent respectively with the planetary motions and the orbital motion of the Moon. In this Keplerian velocity field the planets are closely stationary with respect tothe local HQS and carried by the moving HQS round the sun without the need of a central force field. The Keplerian velocity field of the HQS is the only possible imaginable mechanism able to give rise to the ingenious outside-inside centrifuge mechanism of gravity that creates a central field of centrifugal forces toward the gravitational center on all matter bodies not moving strictly along direct circular equatorial orbits. The Keplerian velocity field of the HQS is shown to appropriately create all the observed effects of the gravitational fields on matter, on light and on clocks.

Abstract:
We show how future gravitational-wave detectors would be able of discriminating between the concordance LCDM cosmological model and up-to-date competing alternatives, e.g. dynamical dark energy models (DE) or modified gravity theories (MG). Our method consists in using the weak-lensing magnification effect that affects a standard-siren signal because of its travelling trough the Universe's large-scale structure. As a demonstration, we present constraints on DE and MG from proposed gravitational-wave detectors, namely ET and DECIGO/BBO.

Abstract:
We apply the recent results in Loop Quantum Cosmology and in the resolution of Black Hole singularity to the gravitational collapse of a star. We study the dynamic of the space time in the interior of the Schwarzschild radius. In particular in our simple model we obtain the evolution of the matter inside the star and of the gravity outside the region where the matter is present. The boundary condition identify an unique time inside and outside the region where the matter is present. We consider a star during the collapse in the particular case in which inside the collapsing star we take null pressure, homogeneity and isotropy. The space-time outside the matter is homogeneous and anisotropic. We show that the space time is singularity free and that we can extend dynamically the space-time beyond the classical singularity.

Abstract:
We discuss the possibility that, besides the usual gravitational lensing, there may exist a sort of gravitational waveguiding in cosmology which could explain some anomalous phenomena which cannot be understood by the current gravitational lensing models as the existence of "brothers" objects having different brilliancy but similar spectra and redshifts posed on the sky with large angular distance. Furthermore, such a phenomena could explain the huge luminosities coming from quasars using the cosmological structures as selfoc-type or planar waveguide. We describe the gravitational waveguide theory and then we discuss possible realizations in cosmology.

Abstract:
One often sees a sharp distinction in mathematics between descriptions from the outside and from the inside. Think of defining a set in the plane through an algebraic equation, or dynamically as the closure of the orbit of some point under iterations of a given mapping. In logic one sees this dichotomy in the descriptions of sets of tautologies through semantics and proofs. Logic provides several tools for making outer descriptions of mathematical objects. This paper concerns a slightly complicated mixture of themes related to inner descriptions and formal proofs. We use the notion of feasibility to embed mathematical structures into spaces of logical formulas, from which we can obtain new structures through proofs. We present new geometries on finitely generated groups through proofs, and new structure on the rational numbers (or other fields) which is susceptible to dynamical processes, such as the action of $SL(2,Z)$ by projective transformations. We consider the topological notion of {\em Serre fibrations}. This entails more difficulties of formalization, but basic points arise already for {\em torus bundles}, which present exponential distortion through cycling in a nicely geometric way. One of our goals is to bring out mathematical structure related to cuts and cut elimination. Our geometry on groups through proofs is far from the word metric precisely because of the cut rule. We want to explore the idea that in general the existence of short proofs with cuts should be related to internal symmetry or dynamical processes in the underlying mathematical objects. We also want to bring ordinary mathematical proofs closer to proof theory. In this regard the topological example is attractive for presenting realistic difficulties.

Abstract:
The dissipation of chlorpyrifos on pakchoi inside and outside greenhouse was studied. The decline curve of chlorpyrifos on pakchoi could be described as first-order kinetic. The experimental data showed that both the hermetic environment of greenhouse and season affected dissipation rates of chlorpyrifos on pakchoi. Chlorpyrifos declined faster outside greenhouse than inside greenhouse. Chlorpyrifos residues at pre-harvest time were below the maximum residue limits(MRLs) fixed in China, whereas the values inside greenhouse were higher than those outside greenhouse by almost 50%. The recommended pre-harvest time established under conditions of open field might not always fit to greenhouse production.

Abstract:
We briefly review the inside-outside and EM algorithm for probabilistic context-free grammars. As a result, we formally prove that inside-outside estimation is a dynamic-programming variant of EM. This is interesting in its own right, but even more when considered in a theoretical context since the well-known convergence behavior of inside-outside estimation has been confirmed by many experiments but apparently has never been formally proved. However, being a version of EM, inside-outside estimation also inherits the good convergence behavior of EM. Therefore, the as yet imperfect line of argumentation can be transformed into a coherent proof.

Abstract:
Most Slavic prefixes can be assigned to one of two large cate- gories, lexical and superlexical. The lexical prefixes are like Germanic particles, in having resultative meanings, often spatial, but often id- iosyncratic. The superlexical prefixes are like adverbs or auxiliary verbs, having aspectual and quantificational meanings. I present a syntactic account of the two types of prefix, arguing that the lexical ones are to be analyzed essentially like the Germanic particles, and that their VP-internal position accounts for many of their properties, while the superlexical ones originate outside VP.

Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the dynamics inside and outside of black-branes in anti de Sitter space by numerical simulations using double-null formalism. We prepare a charged planar matter shell which, due to a negative cosmological constant, collapses and dynamically forms a black-brane with an apparent horizon, a singularity and a Cauchy horizon. The gravitational collapse cannot form a naked overcharged black-brane and hence weak cosmic censorship is safe. Although mass inflation occurs, the effect is much milder than in the case of charged black holes; hence, strong cosmic censorship seems not to be safe. We observed the scalar field dynamics outside the horizon. There should remain a non-trivial scalar field combination - 'charge cloud' - between the horizon and the boundary. This can give some meaning in terms of the AdS/CFT correspondence.

Abstract:
These lectures provide an introductory review of big bang cosmology. I discuss the expanding Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, summarizing the observational evidence which has led to its adoption as the `standard' cosmological model and reviewing its basic properties. Subsequent lectures provide an overview of the early universe. The final lectures give an introduction to the inflationary universe, beginning with the motivating puzzles of the standard cosmology (the horizon and flatness problems) and ending with the inflationary production of quantum field fluctuations and their possible role in seeding the large-scale structure of the Universe.