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 Michael S. Briggs Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1063/1.51730 Abstract: I discuss low-energy lines in gamma-ray bursts. The process of deconvolving gamma-ray spectral data and the steps needed to demonstrate the existence of a line are explained. Previous observations and the current status of the analysis of the BATSE data are described.
 Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/338496 Abstract: The recent detection of a transient absorption feature in the prompt emission of GRB 990705 has sparked multiple attempts to fit this feature in terms of photoelectric absorption or resonance scattering out of the line of sight to the observer. However, the physical conditions required to reproduce the observed absorption feature turn out to be rather extreme compared to the predictions of current GRB progenitor models. In particular, strong clumping of ejecta from the GRB progenitor seems to be required. Using detailed 3D hydrodynamic simulations of supernova explosions as a guideline, we have investigated the dynamics and structure of pre-GRB ejecta predicted in various GRB progenitor models. Based on our results, combined with population synthesis studies relevant to the He-merger model, we estimate the probability of observing X-ray absorption features as seen in GRB 990705 to << 1 %. Alternatively, if the supranova model is capable of producing highly collimated long-duration GRBs, it may be a more promising candidate to produce observable, transient X-ray absorption features.
 Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1063/1.3621774 Abstract: Fermi has shown GRBs to be a source of >10 GeV photons. We present an estimate of the detection rate of GRBs with a next generation Cherenkov telescope. Our predictions are based on the observed properties of GRBs detected by Fermi, combined with the spectral properties and redshift determinations for the bursts population by instruments operating at lower energies. While detection of VHE emission from GRBs has eluded ground-based instruments thus far, our results suggest that ground-based detection may be within reach of the proposed Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), albeit with a low rate, 0.25 - 0.5/yr. Such a detection would help constrain the emission mechanism of gamma-ray emission from GRBs. Photons at these energies from distant GRBs are affected by the UV-optical background light, and a ground-based detection could also provide a valuable probe of the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) in place at high redshift.
 Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1142/S0218271812500289 Abstract: Using the modified internal shock wave model we fit the gamma ray burst (GRB) light and spectral curves of 30 GRBs observed with BATSE. From the best fitting we obtain basic parameters of the relativistic shells which are in good agreement with predictions given earlier. We compare measured GRB parameters with those obtained from the model and discuss connections between them in the frame of the physical processes laying behind GRB events.
 Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20030074 Abstract: We present a spectral analysis of 35 GRBs detected with the HETE-2 gamma-ray detectors (the FREGATE instrument) in the energy range 7-400 keV. The GRB sample analyzed is made of GRBs localized with the Wide Field X-ray Monitor onboard HETE-2 or with the GRB Interplanetary Network. We derive the spectral parameters of the time-integrated spectra, and present the distribution of the low-energy photon index, alpha, and of the peak energy, e_peak . We then discuss the existence and nature of the recently discovered X-Ray Flashes and their relationship with classical GRBs.
 Physics , 2013, Abstract: GRB 121027A is un-usual with its extremely long-lasting, energetic X-ray flares. The total energy release in X-ray flares is about one order of magnitude higher than prompt gamma-rays, making it special from most long GRBs. We show that while the prompt gamma-ray emission satisfies the empirical E_{iso}-E_{p} relation of typical long GRBs, the X-ray flares, whose spectra can be fit with a cutoff-power-law model with well-constrained E_p, significantly deviate from such a relation. Nonetheless, a time-resolved spectral analysis of X-ray flares suggest that the X-ray emission is consistent with the L_{iso}-E_{p} relation of long GRBs. We constrain the minimum Lorentz factor of the X-ray flares to be ~14, which is consistent with the Gamma-L_{iso} relation. Our results imply that prompt gamma-ray emission and late X-ray flares share the similar radiation mechanism, but originate from the outflows with different Lorentz factors. We search for similar GRBs from the Swift GRB archives, and find that the z=6.29 GRB 050904 is a carbon copy of GRB 121027A. The long-lasting, energetic X-ray flares in these GRBs demand significant accretion at late times, which point towards a large-radius progenitor star.
 Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/306719 Abstract: We investigate the cosmological evolution of GRBs, using the total gamma ray fluence as a measure of the burst strength. This involves an understanding of the distributions of the spectral parameters of GRBs as well as the total fluence distribution - both of which are subject to detector selection effects. We present new non-parametric statistical techniques to account for these effects, and use these methods to estimate the true distribution of the peak of the nu F_nu spectrum, E_p, from the raw distribution. The distributions are obtained from four channel data and therefore are rough estimates. Here, we emphasize the methods and present qualitative results. Given its spectral parameters, we then calculate the total fluence for each burst, and compute its cumulative and differential distributions. We use these distributions to estimate the cosmological rate evolution of GRBs, for three cosmological models. Our two main conclusions are the following: 1) Given our estimates of the spectral parameters, we find that there may exist a significant population of high E_p bursts that are not detected by BATSE, 2) We find a GRB co-moving rate density quite different from that of other extragalactic objects; in particular, it is different from the recently determined star formation rate.
 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201016270 Abstract: We present the results of the spectral analysis of the public data of 438 Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma ray Burst Monitor (GBM) up to March 2010. For 432 bursts we could fit the time integrated spectrum. In 318 cases we can reliably constrain the peak energy Epeak of their \nu F_\nu spectrum by analyzing their time integrated spectrum between 8 keV and 35 MeV. 80% of these spectra are fitted by a power law with an exponential cutoff, and the remaining with the Band function. Among these 318 GRBs, 274 and 44 belong to the long and short GRB class, respectively. Long GRBs have a typical peak energy Epeak=160 keV and low energy spectral index alpha=-0.92. Short GRBs have harder peak energy (Epeak=490 keV) and harder low energy spectral index (alpha=-0.50) than long bursts. For each Fermi GRB we analyzed also the spectrum corresponding to the peak flux of the burst. On average, the peak spectrum has harder low energy spectral index but similar Epeak than the corresponding time-integrated spectrum for the same burst. The spectral parameters derived in our analysis of Fermi/GBM bursts are globally consistent with those reported in the GRB Cicular Network (GCN) archive after December 2008, while we found systematic differences, concerning the low energy power law index, for earlier bursts.
 Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1393/ncb/i2007-10285-x Abstract: We present the properties of spectrum of radiation emitted during gravitational collapse in which electromagnetic field strengths rise over the critical value for $e^+e^-$ pair creation. A drift from soft to a hard energy and a high energy cut off have been found; a comparison with a pure black body spectrum is outlined.
 Physics , 2015, Abstract: We present the first systematic investigation of spectral properties of 17 Type Ic Supernovae (SNe Ic), 10 broad-lined SNe Ic (SNe Ic-bl) without observed Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and 10 SNe Ic-bl with GRBs (SN-GRBs) as a function of time in order to probe their explosion conditions and progenitors. We analyze a total of 396 spectra, which were drawn from published spectra of individual SNe as well as from the densely time-sampled spectra data of Modjaz et al. (2014). In order to quantify the diversity of the SN spectra as a function of SN subtype, we construct average spectra of SNe Ic, SNe Ic-bl without GRBs and SNe Ic-bl with GRBs, along with standard deviation and maximum deviation contours. We find that SN~1994I is not a typical SN Ic, in contrast to common belief, while the spectra of SN 1998bw/GRB 980425 are representative of mean spectra of SNe Ic-bl. We measure the ejecta absorption and width velocities (as traced by FeII 5169) and find that SNe Ic-bl with GRBs, on average, have quantifiably higher absorption velocities, as well as broader line widths than SNe without observed GRBs. We interpret this to indicate that SNe Ic-bl without observed GRBs may have had lower energy, chocked jets that imparted lower velocities to the SN ejecta. Moreover, we address the He-problem in SNe Ic-bl, namely whether the puzzling lack of He lines in SN Ic-bl spectra could be due to their He lines being too broadened by the high velocities present, and thus smeared out. We show that the absence of clear He lines in optical spectra of all SNe Ic-bl, and in particular of SN-GRBs, is not due to them being too smeared out. This implies that the progenitor stars of SN-GRBs are probably He-free, in addition to being H-free, which puts strong constraints on the stellar evolutionary paths needed to produce such SN-GRB progenitor stars at the observed low metallicities. (Abridged)
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