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 Physics , 2014, Abstract: From Liu and Han (2014), the accretion-dominated jet power has a linear proportionality with the accretion rate, whereas the power law index is <=0.5 at lower accretion rate. Attributing the jet power in low accretion rate AGN to the black hole spin, it implies that the jet power has a flatter spectrum than the accretion-dominated jet versus the accretion rate. The black hole must be spinning rapidly for producing such jet power efficiently, and this may allow us to find high-spin black holes in the radio-loud low-luminosity AGN.
 Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19006.x Abstract: We present a new backward evolution model for galaxies and AGNs in the infrared (IR). What is new in this model is the separate study of the evolutionary properties of the different IR populations (i.e. spiral galaxies, starburst galaxies, low-luminosity AGNs, "unobscured" type 1 AGNs and "obscured" type 2 AGNs) defined through a detailed analysis of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of large samples of IR selected sources. The evolutionary parameters have been constrained by means of all the available observables from surveys in the mid- and far-IR (source counts, redshift and luminosity distributions, luminosity functions). By decomposing the SEDs representative of the three AGN classes into three distinct components (a stellar component emitting most of its power in the optical/near-IR, an AGN component due to hot dust heated by the central black hole peaking in the mid-IR, and a starburst component dominating the far-IR spectrum) we have disentangled the AGN contribution to the monochromatic and total IR luminosity emitted by the different populations considered in our model from that due to star-formation activity. We have then obtained an estimate of the total IR luminosity density (and star-formation density - SFD - produced by IR galaxies) and the first ever estimate of the black hole mass accretion density (BHAR) from the IR. The derived evolution of the BHAR is in agreement with estimates from X-rays, though the BHAR values we derive from IR are slightly higher than the X-ray ones. Finally, we have simulated source counts, redshift distributions and SFD and BHAR that we expect to obtain with the future cosmological Surveys in the mid-/far-IR that will be performed with JWST-MIRI and SPICA-SAFARI.
 Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1007/s10509-015-2309-4 Abstract: A sample of 111 Fermi blazars each with a well-established radio core luminosity, broad-line luminosity, bolometric luminosity and black hole mass has been compiled from the literatures.We present a significant correlation between radio core and broad-line emission luminosities that supports a close link between accretion processes and relativistic jets. Analysis reveals a relationship of $\rm{LogL_{BLR}\sim(0.81\pm0.06)LogL_{R}^{C}}$ which is consistant with theoretical predicted coefficient and supports that blazar jets are powered by energy extraction from a rapidly spinning Kerr black hole through the magnetic field provided by the accretion disk. Through studying the correlation between the intrinsic bolometric luminosity and the black hole mass, we find a relationship of $\rm{{Log}\frac{L_{in}}{L_{\odot}}=(0.95\pm0.26){Log}\frac{M}{M_{\odot}}+(3.53\pm2.24)}$ which supports mass-luminosity relation for Fermi blazars derived in this work is a powerlaw relation similar to that for main-sequence stars. Finally, evolutionary sequence of blazars is discussed.
 Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1257 Abstract: The X-ray spectra of black hole binaries in the low/hard state first harden as the flux decreases, then soften. This change in behaviour has been variously attributed to either the X-rays switching from being produced in the flow to being dominated by the jet, or to the flow switching seed photons from the disc to self generated seed photons from cyclo-synchrotron. Here we build a simple truncated disc, hot inner flow, plus standard conical synchrotron jet model to explore what this predicts for the X-ray emission mechanism as a function of mass accretion rate. We find that the change in X-ray spectral index can be quantitatively (not just qualitatively) explained by the seed photon switch in the hot flow i.e. this supports models where the X-rays are always produced by the hot flow. By contrast, standard conical jet models are as radiatively inefficient as the hot flow so there is no transition in X-ray production mechanism with $\dot{m}$. Including the effects of electron cooling allows the jet X-rays to drop more slowly with accretion rate and hence overtake the X-rays from the hot flow, however this produces a corresponding change in the radio-X-ray correlation, which is not observed. We argue that the unbroken radio-X-ray correlation down to quiescence rules out the jet transition model as an explanation for the trend in X-ray spectral index. Our favoured model is then a truncated disc with an inner, hot, radiatively inefficient flow which always dominates the hard X-rays, coupled to a conical synchrotron jet which produces the radio emission. However, even this has issues at low $\dot{m}$ as the low optical depth and high temperature of the flow means that the Compton spectrum is not well approximated by a power law. This shows the need for a more sophisticated model for the electron distribution in the hot flow.
 Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20010475 Abstract: We address the question of the relations between the black hole's mass, the accretion rate, the bolometric luminosity, the optical luminosity and the size of the Broad Line Region (BLR) in Active Galactic Nuclei, using recent observational data obtained from monitoring campaigns. We show that a standard accretion disc cannot account for the observed optical luminosity, unless it radiates at super-Eddington rates. This implies the existence of another, dominant emission mechanism in the optical range, or a non standard disc (non stationary, ADAF and/or strong outflows). Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) are most extreme in this context: they have larger bolometric to Eddington luminosity ratios than Broad Line Seyfert 1 (BLS1s), and most likely a larger "non disc" component in the optical range. From realistic simulations of self-gravitating $\alpha$-discs, we have systematically localized the gravitationally unstable disc and shown that, given uncertainties on both the model and observations, it coincides quite well with the size of the BLR. We therefore suggest that the gravitationally unstable disc is the source which releases BLR clouds in the medium. However the influence of the ionization parameter is also required to explain the correlation found between the size of the BLR and the luminosity. In this picture the size of the BLR in NLS1s (relative to the black hole size) is larger (and the emission line width smaller) than in BLS1s simply because their Eddington ratio is larger.
 Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/311444 Abstract: As a class, LINERs and Low-Luminosity AGN tend to show little or no significant short-term variability (i.e., with time-scales less than a day). This is a marked break for the trend of increased variability in Seyfert 1 galaxies with decreased luminosity. We propose that this difference is due to the lower accretion rate in LINERs and LLAGN which is probably causing the accretion flow to be advection-dominated. This results in a larger characteristic size for the X-ray producing region than is the case in normal'' AGN. Short-term variability may be caused by a localized instability or occultation events, but we note that such events would likely be accompanied by broad-band spectral changes. Since the ADAF is more compact in a Kerr metric, it is possible that the X-ray emission from ADAFs around rotating blackholes would be more variable than X-ray emission from ADAFs in a Schwarzchild metric. Similar variability arguments also apply to other wavelengths, and accordingly multiwavelength monitoring of LLAGN could serve to map'' the ADAF regions.
 Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/378187 Abstract: NGC 4261 (3C 270) is a low-luminosity radio galaxy with two symmetric kiloparsec-scale jets. Earlier Hubble Space Telescope observations indicated the presence of a hundred-parsec scale disk of cool dust and gas surrounding a central, supermassive ($\sim 4.9\times 10^8\msun$) black hole. The recent detection of free-free radio absorption by a small, geometrically-thin disk, combined with earlier studies of the disk's large scale properties, provide the strictest constraints to date on the nature of the accretion process in this system. We show here that a supersonic disk, illuminated by the active galactic nucleus (AGN), can not only account for the observed radio shadowing, but can also produce the optical broad lines emitted from this region. Beyond a critical radius $r_c$, line cooling dominates over gravitational dissipation and the gas is effectively cooled down to temperatures below $10^4$ K. Within $r_c$, however, heating due to the release of gravitational energy overwhelms line cooling and the plasma is heated very quickly to a temperature close to its virial value as it falls toward the central engine. The disk is optically-thin to UV and X-ray radiation within $r_c$, so the ionizing radiation from the AGN is preferentially absorbed near $r_c$, affecting the disk structure significantly. To include the ensuing photoionization effect, we have used the algorithm Cloudy with additional heating introduced by gravitational dissipation to calculate the temperature profile and line emission from the disk in a self-consistent manner. The results of our model calculation are consistent with current multiwavelength observations of the disk in this source.