Abstract:
We present an implementation of a continuous matrix product state for two-component fermions in one-dimension. We propose a construction of variational matrices with an efficient parameterization that respects the translational symmetry of the problem (without being overly constraining) and readily meets the regularity conditions that arise from removing the ultraviolet divergences in the kinetic energy. We test the validity of our approach on an interacting spin-1/2 system and observe that the ansatz correctly predicts the ground state magnetic properties for the attractive spin-1/2 Fermi gas, including the phase-oscillating pair correlation function in the partially polarized regime.

Abstract:
We define matrix product states in the continuum limit, without any reference to an underlying lattice parameter. This allows to extend the density matrix renormalization group and variational matrix product state formalism to quantum field theories and continuum models in 1 spatial dimension. We illustrate our procedure with the Lieb-Liniger model.

Abstract:
A generic method to investigate many-body continuous-variable systems is pedagogically presented. It is based on the notion of matrix product states (so-called MPS) and the algorithms thereof. The method is quite versatile and can be applied to a wide variety of situations. As a first test, we show how it provides reliable results in the computation of fundamental properties of a chain of quantum harmonic oscillators achieving off-critical and critical relative errors of the order of 10^(-8) and 10^(-4) respectively. Next, we use it to study the ground state properties of the quantum rotor model in one spatial dimension, a model that can be mapped to the Mott insulator limit of the 1-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model. At the quantum critical point, the central charge associated to the underlying conformal field theory can be computed with good accuracy by measuring the finite-size corrections of the ground state energy. Examples of MPS-computations both in the finite-size regime and in the thermodynamic limit are given. The precision of our results are found to be comparable to those previously encountered in the MPS studies of, for instance, quantum spin chains. Finally, we present a spin-off application: an iterative technique to efficiently get numerical solutions of partial differential equations of many variables. We illustrate this technique by solving Poisson-like equations with precisions of the order of 10^(-7).

Abstract:
We construct and study a two-parameter family of matrix product operators of bond dimension $D=4$. The operators $M(x,y)$ act on $({\mathbb C}_2)^{\otimes N}$, i.e., the space of states of a spin-$1/2$ chain of length $N$. For the particular values of the parameters: $x=1/3$ and $y=1/\sqrt{3}$, the operator turns out to be proportional to the square root of the reduced density matrix of the valence-bond-solid state on a hexagonal ladder. We show that $M(x,y)$ has several interesting properties when $(x,y)$ lies on the unit circle centered at the origin: $x^2 + y^2=1$. In this case, we find that $M(x,y)$ commutes with the Hamiltonian and all the conserved charges of the isotropic spin-$1/2$ Heisenberg chain. Moreover, $M(x_1,y_1)$ and $M(x_2,y_2)$ are mutually commuting if $x^2_i + y^2_i=1$ for both $i=1$ and $2$. These remarkable properties of $M(x,y)$ are proved as a consequence of the Yang-Baxter equation.

Abstract:
We study a dissipative Bose-Hubbard chain subject to an engineered bath using a superoperator approach based on matrix product operators. The dissipation is engineered to stabilize a BEC condensate wave function in its steady state. We then characterize the steady state emerging from the interplay between incompatible Hamiltonian and dissipative dynamics. While it is expected that interactions lead to this competition, even the kinetic energy in an open boundary condition setup competes with the dissipation, leading to a non-trivial steady state. We also present results for the transient dynamics and probe the relaxation time revealing the closing of the dissipative gap in the thermodynamic limit.

Abstract:
The property of quantum many-body systems under spatial reflection and the relevant physics of renormalization group (RG) procedure are revealed. By virtue of the matrix product state (MPS) representation, various attributes for translational invariant systems associated with spatial reflection are manifested. We demonstrate subsequently a conservation rule of the conjugative relation for reflectional MPS pairs under RG transformations and illustrate further the property of the fixed points of RG flows. Finally, we show that a similar rule exists with respect to the target states in the density matrix renormalization group algorithm.

Abstract:
We describe a method for simulating the real time evolution of extended quantum systems in two dimensions. The method combines the benefits of integrability and matrix product states in one dimension to avoid several issues that hinder other applications of tensor based methods in 2D. In particular it can be extended to infinitely long cylinders. As an example application we present results for quantum quenches in the 2D quantum (2+1 dimensional) Ising model. In quenches that cross a phase boundary we find that the return probability shows non-analyticities in time.

Abstract:
The Kosterlitz-Thouless transition is studied from the representation of the systems's ground state wave functions in terms of Matrix Product States for a quantum system on an infinite-size lattice in one spatial dimension. It is found that, in the critical regime for a one-dimensional quantum lattice system with continuous symmetry, the newly-developed infinite Matrix Product State algorithm automatically leads to infinite degenerate ground states, due to the finiteness of the truncation dimension. This results in \textit{pseudo} continuous symmetry spontaneous breakdown, which allows to introduce a pseudo-order parameter that must be scaled down to zero, in order to be consistent with the Mermin-Wegner theorem. We also show that the ground state fidelity per lattice site exhibits a \textit{catastrophe point}, thus resolving a controversy regarding whether or not the ground state fidelity is able to detect the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition.

Abstract:
The concept of stochastic matrix product states is introduced and a natural form for the states is derived. This allows to define the analogue of Schmidt coefficients for steady states of non-equilibrium stochastic processes. We discuss a new measure for correlations which is analogous to the entanglement entropy, the entropy cost $S_C$, and show that this measure quantifies the bond dimension needed to represent a steady state as a matrix product state. We illustrate these concepts on the hand of the asymmetric exclusion process.

Abstract:
A Kronecker product model is the set of visible marginal probability distributions of an exponential family whose sufficient statistics matrix factorizes as a Kronecker product of two matrices, one for the visible variables and one for the hidden variables. We estimate the dimension of these models by the maximum rank of the Jacobian in the limit of large parameters. The limit is described by the tropical morphism; a piecewise linear map with pieces corresponding to slicings of the visible matrix by the normal fan of the hidden matrix. We obtain combinatorial conditions under which the model has the expected dimension, equal to the minimum of the number of natural parameters and the dimension of the ambient probability simplex. Additionally, we prove that the binary restricted Boltzmann machine always has the expected dimension.