Abstract:
Using the large-deviation formalism, we study the statistics of current fluctuations in a diffusive nonequilibrium quantum spin chain. The boundary-driven XX chain with dephasing consists of a coherent bulk hopping and a local dissipative dephasing. We analytically calculate the exact expression for the second current moment in a system of any length and then numerically demonstrate that in the thermodynamic limit higher-order cumulants and the large-deviation function can be calculated using the additivity principle or macroscopic hydrodynamic theory. This shows that the additivity principle can also hold in systems that are not purely stochastic, and can in particular be valid in quantum systems. We also show that in large systems the current fluctuations are the same as in the classical symmetric simple exclusion process.

Abstract:
We calculate a nonequilibrium steady state of a quantum XX chain in the presence of dephasing and driving due to baths at chain ends. The obtained state is exact in the limit of weak driving while the expressions for one- and two-point correlations are exact for an arbitrary driving strength. In the steady state the magnetization profile and the spin current display diffusive behavior. Spin-spin correlation function on the other hand has long-range correlations which though decay to zero in either the thermodynamical limit or for equilibrium driving. At zero dephasing a nonequilibrium phase transition occurs from a ballistic transport having short-range correlations to a diffusive transport with long-range correlations.

Abstract:
We discuss current carrying non-equilibrium steady state of an open fermionic Hubbard chain that is strongly driven by markovian incoherent processes localized at the chain ends. An explicit form of exact many-body density operator for any value of the coupling parameter is presented. The structure of a matrix product form of the solution is encoded in terms of a novel diagrammatic technique which should allow for generalization to other integrable non-equillibrium models.

Abstract:
An exact and explicit ladder-tensor-network ansatz is presented for the non-equilibrium steady state of an anisotropic Heisenberg XXZ spin-1/2 chain which is driven far from equilibrium with a pair of Lindblad operators acting on the edges of the chain only. We show that the steady-state density operator of a finite system of size n is - apart from a normalization constant - a polynomial of degree 2n-2 in the coupling constant. Efficient computation of physical observables is faciliated in terms of a transfer operator reminiscent of a classical Markov process. In the isotropic case we find cosine spin profiles, 1/n^2 scaling of the spin current, and long-range correlations in the steady state. This is a fully nonperturbative extension of a recent result [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 217206 (2011)].

Abstract:
The exact large deviation function (ldf) for the fluctuations of the energy density field is computed for a chain of Ising (or more generally Potts) spins driven by a zero-temperature (dissipative) Glauber dynamics and sustained in a non trivial stationary regime by an arbitrary energy injection mechanism at the boundary of the system. It is found that this ldf is independent of the dynamical details of the energy injection, and that the energy fluctuations, unlike conservative systems in a nonequilibrium state, are not spatially correlated in the stationary regime.

Abstract:
We analyze a systematic algorithm for the exact computation of the current cumulants in stochastic nonequilibrium systems, recently discussed in the framework of full counting statistics for mesoscopic systems. This method is based on identifying the current cumulants from a Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbation expansion for the generating function. Here it is derived from a simple path-distribution identity and extended to the joint statistics of multiple currents. For a possible thermodynamical interpretation, we compare this approach to a generalized Onsager-Machlup formalism. We present calculations for a boundary driven Kawasaki dynamics on a one-dimensional chain, both for attractive and repulsive particle interactions.

Abstract:
The theory of large deviations has been applied successfully in the last 30 years or so to study the properties of equilibrium systems and to put the foundations of equilibrium statistical mechanics on a clearer and more rigorous footing. A similar approach has been followed more recently for nonequilibrium systems, especially in the context of interacting particle systems. We review here the basis of this approach, emphasizing the similarities and differences that exist between the application of large deviation theory for studying equilibrium systems on the one hand and nonequilibrium systems on the other. Of particular importance are the notions of macroscopic, hydrodynamic, and long-time limits, which are analogues of the equilibrium thermodynamic limit, and the notion of statistical ensembles which can be generalized to nonequilibrium systems. For the purpose of illustrating our discussion, we focus on applications to Markov processes, in particular to simple random walks.

Abstract:
We provide an exact expression for the statistics of the fluxes of Markov jump processes at all times, improving on asymptotic results from large deviation theory. The main ingredient is a generalization of the BEST theorem in enumeratoric graph theory to Eulerian tours with open ends. In the long-time limit we reobtain Sanov's theorem for Markov processes, which expresses the exponential suppression of fluctuations in terms of relative entropy. The finite-time power-law term, increasingly important with the system size, is a spanning-tree determinant that, by introducing Grassmann variables, can be absorbed into the effective Lagrangian of a Fermionic ghost field on a metric space, coupled to a gauge potential. With reference to concepts in nonequilibrium stochastic thermodynamics, the metric is related to the dynamical activity that measures net communication between states, and the connection is made to a previous gauge theory for diffusion processes.

Abstract:
We study the distribution of the time-integrated current in an exactly-solvable toy model of heat conduction, both analytically and numerically. The simplicity of the model allows us to derive the full current large deviation function and the system statistics during a large deviation event. In this way we unveil a relation between system statistics at the end of a large deviation event and for intermediate times. Midtime statistics is independent of the sign of the current, a reflection of the time-reversal symmetry of microscopic dynamics, while endtime statistics do depend on the current sign, and also on its microscopic definition. We compare our exact results with simulations based on the direct evaluation of large deviation functions, analyzing the finite-size corrections of this simulation method and deriving detailed bounds for its applicability. We also show how the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem can be used to determine the range of validity of simulation results.

Abstract:
The generalization of the Zubarev nonequilibrium statistical operator method for the case of Renyi statistics is proposed when the relevant statistical operator (or distribution function) is obtained based on the principle of maximum for the Renyi entropy. The nonequilibrium statistical operator and corresponding generalized transport equations for the reduced-description parameters are obtained. A consistent description of kinetic and hydrodynamic processes in the system of interacting particles is considered as an example.