Abstract:
We report observation of the enhancement of superconductivity near lattice dislocations and the absence of the strengthening of vortex pinning in odd-parity superconductor Sr$_2$RuO$_4$, both surprising results in direct contrast to the well known sensitivity of superconductivity in Sr$_2$RuO$_4$ to disorder. The enhanced superconductivity appears to be related fundamentally to the two-component nature of the superconducting order parameter, as revealed in our phenomenological theory taking into account the effect of symmetry reduction near a dislocation.

Abstract:
Unconventional superconducting states of matter are realized in the presence of strong spin orbit coupling. In particular, non degenerate bands can support odd parity superconductivity with rich topological content. Here we study whether this is the case for Weyl semimetals. These are systems whose low energy sector, in the absence of interactions, is described by linearly dispersing chiral fermions in three dimensions. The energy spectrum has nodes at an even number of points in the Brillouin zone. Consequently both intranodal finite momentum pairing and internodal BCS superconductivity are allowed. For local attractive interaction the finite momentum pairing state with chiral p-wave symmetry is found to be most favorable at finite chemical potential. The state is an analog of the superfluid $^{3}$He A phase, with cooper pairs having finite center of mass momentum. For chemical potential at the node the state is preempted by a fully gapped charge density wave. For long range attraction the BCS state wins out for all values of the chemical potential.

Abstract:
Under the assumption that superconducting pairing is driven by local d-p hybridization, we show that the superconducting state in iron-based superconductors is classified as an odd parity s-wave spin-singlet pairing state in a single trilayer FeAs/Se, the building block of the materials. In a low energy effective model with only d-orbitals in an iron square bipartite lattice, the superconducting order parameter in this state is a combination of a s-wave normal pairing between two sublattices and a s-wave $\eta$-pairing within the sublattices. Parity conservation was violated in proposed superconducting states in the past. The results demonstrate iron-based superconductors being a new quantum state of matter and suggest that a measurement of odd parity can establish fundamental principles related to high temperature superconducting mechanism.

Abstract:
Superconductive properties of the two-leg ladder compounds are studied theoretically. The antiferromagnetic fluctuations are considered because of the good nesting of the Fermi surfaces. The attractive interaction which is most likely due to the electron-phonon coupling is also taken into account. Under this circumstance, it is shown that the superconductivity has two sets of spin-triplet pairings. The gaps for both pairings have no node.

Abstract:
We study superconductivity in spin-orbit-coupled systems in the vicinity of inversion symmetry breaking. We find that due to the presence of spin-orbit coupling, fluctuations of the incipient parity-breaking order generate an attractive pairing interaction in an odd-parity pairing channel, which competes with the s-wave pairing. We show that applying a Zeeman field suppresses the s-wave pairing and promotes the odd-parity superconducting state. Our work provides a new mechanism for odd-parity pairing and opens a route to novel topological superconductivity.

Abstract:
Unconventional superconductors host a plethora of interesting physical phenomena. However, the standard theory of superconductivity suggests that unconventional pairing is highly sensitive to disorder, and hence can only be observed in ultraclean systems. We find that due to an emergent chiral symmetry, spin-orbital locking can parametrically suppress pair decoherence introduced by impurity scattering in odd-parity superconductors. Our work demonstrates that disorder is not an obstacle to realize odd-parity superconductivity in materials with strong spin-orbit coupling.

Abstract:
We show that odd-parity superconductivity occurs in multilayer Rashba systems without requiring spin-triplet Cooper pairs. A pairing interaction in the spin-singlet channel stabilizes the odd-parity pair-density-wave (PDW) state in the magnetic field parallel to the two-dimensional conducting plane. It is shown that the layer-dependent Rashba spin-orbit coupling and the orbital effect play essential roles for the PDW state in binary and tricolor heterostructures. We demonstrate that the odd-parity PDW state is a symmetry-protected topological superconducting state characterized by the one-dimensional winding number in the symmetry class BDI. The superconductivity in the artificial heavy-fermion superlattice CeCoIn_5/YbCoIn_5 and bilayer interface SrTiO_3/LaAlO_3 is discussed.

Abstract:
The existence of topological superconductors preserving time-reversal symmetry was recently predicted, and they are expected to provide a solid-state realization of itinerant massless Majorana fermions and a route to topological quantum computation. Their first concrete example, CuxBi2Se3, was discovered last year, but the search for new materials has so far been hindered by the lack of guiding principle. Here, we report point-contact spectroscopy experiments showing that the low-carrier-density superconductor Sn_{1-x}In_{x}Te is accompanied with surface Andreev bound states which, with the help of theoretical analysis, give evidence for odd-parity pairing and topological superconductivity. The present and previous finding of topological superconductivity in Sn_{1-x}In_{x}Te and CuxBi2Se3 demonstrates that odd-parity pairing favored by strong spin-orbit coupling is a common underlying mechanism for materializing topological superconductivity.

Abstract:
Motivated by the proposed topological state in Cu$_x$Bi$_2$Se$_3$, we study the possibility of phonon-mediated odd-parity superconductivity in spin-orbit coupled systems with time-reversal and inversion symmetry. For such systems, we show that, in general, pure electron-phonon coupling can never lead to a triplet state with a higher critical temperature than the leading singlet state. The Coulomb pseudopotential, which is the repulsive part of the electron-electron interaction and is typically small in weakly correlated systems, is therefore critical to stabilizing the triplet state. We introduce a chirality quantum number, which identifies the electron-phonon vertex interactions that are most favorable to the triplet channel as those that conserve chirality. Applying these results to Cu$_x$Bi$_2$Se$_3$, we find that a phonon-mediated odd-parity state may be realized in the presence of weak electronic correlations if the chirality-preserving electron-phonon vertices are much stronger than the chirality-flipping vertices.

Abstract:
Searching for unconventional Cooper pairing states has been at the heart of superconductivity research since the discovery of BCS superconductors. In particular, spin-triplet odd-parity pairing states were recently revisited due to the possibility of tuning towards topological superconductors. In this context, it is interesting to note a recent proposal that such a spin-triplet pairing instability occurs when the band filling is near van Hove singularities (vHS) associated with momenta away from time-reversal invariant momenta named type-II vHS. However, this result was obtained within a weak coupling renormalization group with Fermi surface patch approximation. To explore superconducting instabilities beyond this weak coupling Fermi surface patch approximation, we perform systematic study on Hubbard model in a two-dimensional square lattice using three different methods: random phase approximation, large-scale dynamical mean field theory simulations with continuous time quantum Monte Carlo (CTQMC) impurity solver, and large-scale dynamical cluster simulations with CTQMC cluster solver. We find, in a wide doping range centered around the type-II van Hove filling, a two-fold degenerate, spin-triplet, odd-parity $p$-wave pairing state emerges due to repulsive interaction, when the Fermi surface is not sufficiently nested. Possible relevance of our findings to the recently discovered superconductors LaO$_{1-x}$F$_{x}$BiS$_{2}$, Ir$_{1-x}$Pt$_{x}$Te$_{2}$ and proposed doped BC$_{3}$ are also discussed.