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Conservation of Total Escape from Hydrodynamic Planetary Atmospheres  [PDF]
F. Tian
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2013.08.008
Abstract: Atmosphere escape is one key process controlling the evolution of planets. However, estimating the escape rate in any detail is difficult because there are many physical processes contributing to the total escape rate. Here we show that as a result of energy conservation the total escape rate from hydrodynamic planetary atmospheres where the outflow remains subsonic is nearly constant under the same stellar XUV photon flux when increasing the escape efficiency from the exobase level, consistent with the energy limited escape approximation. Thus the estimate of atmospheric escape in a planet's evolution history can be greatly simplified.
The Great Escape II: Exoplanet Ejection from Dying Multiple Star Systems  [PDF]
Dimitri Veras,Christopher A. Tout
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20741.x
Abstract: Extrasolar planets and belts of debris orbiting post-main-sequence single stars may become unbound as the evolving star loses mass. In multiple star systems, the presence or co-evolution of the additional stars can significantly complicate the prospects for orbital excitation and escape. Here, we investigate the dynamical consequences of multi-phasic, nonlinear mass loss and establish a criterion for a system of any stellar multiplicity to retain a planet whose orbit surrounds all of the parent stars. For single stars which become white dwarfs, this criterion can be combined with the Chandrasekhar Limit to establish the maximum allowable mass loss rate for planet retention. We then apply the criterion to circumbinary planets in evolving binary systems over the entire stellar mass phase space. Through about 10^5 stellar evolutionary track realizations, we characterize planetary ejection prospects as a function of binary separation, stellar mass and metallicity. This investigation reveals that planets residing at just a few tens of AU from a central concentration of stars are susceptible to escape in a wide variety of multiple systems. Further, planets are significantly more susceptible to ejection from multiple star systems than from single star systems for a given system mass. For system masses greater than about 2 Solar masses, multiple star systems represent the greater source of free-floating planets.
A Hubble Space Telescope Survey for Resolved Companions of Planetary-Nebula Nuclei  [PDF]
Robin Ciardullo,Howard E. Bond,Michael S. Sipior,Laura K. Fullton,C. -Y. Zhang,Karen G. Schaefer
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/300940
Abstract: We report results of an HST "snapshot" survey aimed at finding resolved binary companions of the central stars of Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe). Using WF/PC and WFPC2, we searched the fields of 113 PNe for stars whose close proximity to the central star suggests a physical association. We find 10 binary nuclei that are very likely to be physically associated, and another six that are possible binary associations. By correcting for interstellar extinction and placing the central stars' companions on the main sequence, we derive distances to the objects, and thereby significantly increase the number of PNe with reliable distances. Comparison of our derived distances with those obtained from various statistical methods shows that all of the latter have systematically overestimated the distances, by factors ranging up to a factor of two or more. We show that this error is most likely due to the fact that the properties of our PNe with binary nuclei are systematically different from those of PNe used heretofore to calibrate statistical methods. Specifically, our PNe tend to have lower surface brightnesses at the same physical radius than the traditional calibration objects. This difference may arise from a selection effect: the PNe in our survey are typically nearby, old nebulae, whereas most of the objects that calibrate statistical techniques are low-latitude, high-surface-brightness, and more distant nebulae. As a result, the statistical methods that seem to work well with samples of distant PNe, e.g., those in the Galactic bulge or external galaxies, may not be applicable to the more diverse population of local PNe.
Multi-Planet Destabilisation and Escape in Post-Main Sequence Systems  [PDF]
George Voyatzis,John D. Hadjidemetriou,Dimitri Veras,Harry Varvoglis
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt137
Abstract: Discoveries of exoplanets orbiting evolved stars motivate critical examinations of the dynamics of $N$-body systems with mass loss. Multi-planet evolved systems are particularly complex because of the mutual interactions between the planets. Here, we study the underlying dynamical mechanisms which can incite planetary escape in two-planet post-main sequence systems. Stellar mass loss alone is unlikely to be rapid and high enough to eject planets at typically-observed separations. However, the combination of mass loss and planet-planet interactions can prompt a shift from stable to chaotic regions of phase space. Consequently, when mass loss ceases, the unstable configuration may cause escape. By assuming a constant stellar mass loss rate, we utilize maps of dynamical stability to illustrate the distribution of regular and chaotic trajectories in phase space. We show that chaos can drive the planets to undergo close encounters, leading to the ejection of one planet. Stellar mass loss can trigger the transition of a planetary system from a stable to chaotic configuration, subsequently causing escape. We find that mass loss non-adiabatically affects planet-planet interaction for the most massive progenitor stars which avoid the supernova stage. For these cases, we present specific examples of planetary escape.
The Great Escape: How Exoplanets and Smaller Bodies Desert Dying Stars  [PDF]
Dimitri Veras,Mark C. Wyatt,Alexander J. Mustill,Amy Bonsor,John J. Eldridge
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19393.x
Abstract: Mounting discoveries of extrasolar planets orbiting post-main sequence stars motivate studies aimed at understanding the fate of these planets. In the traditional "adiabatic" approximation, a secondary's eccentricity remains constant during stellar mass loss. Here, we remove this approximation, investigate the full two-body point-mass problem with isotropic mass loss, and illustrate the resulting dynamical evolution. The magnitude and duration of a star's mass loss combined with a secondary's initial orbital characteristics might provoke ejection, modest eccentricity pumping, or even circularisation of the orbit. We conclude that Oort clouds and wide-separation planets may be dynamically ejected from 1-7 Solar-mass parent stars during AGB evolution. The vast majority of planetary material which survives a supernova from a 7-20 Solar-mass progenitor will be dynamically ejected from the system, placing limits on the existence of first-generation pulsar planets. Planets around >20 Solar-mass black hole progenitors may easily survive or readily be ejected depending on the core collapse and superwind models applied. Material ejected during stellar evolution might contribute significantly to the free-floating planetary population.
The Great Inequality In A Hamiltonian Planetary Theory  [PDF]
F. Varadi,M. Ghil,W. M. Kaula,Keywords,:,Hamiltonian systems,planetary motion,perturbation theory,resonances
Physics , 1993,
Abstract: The Jupiter-Saturn 2:5 near-commensurability is analyzed in a fully analytic Hamiltonian planetary theory. Computations for the Sun-Jupiter-Saturn system, extending to the third order of the masses and to the 8th degree in the eccentricities and inclinations, reveal an unexpectedly sensitive dependence of the solution on initial data and its likely nonconvergence. The source of the sensitivity and apparent lack of convergence is this near-commensurability, the so-called great inequality. This indicates that simple averaging, still common in current semi-analytic planetary theories, may not be an adequate technique to obtain information on the long-term dynamics of the Solar System. Preliminary results suggest that these difficulties can be overcome by using resonant normal forms.
Planetary population synthesis coupled with atmospheric escape: a statistical view of evaporation  [PDF]
Sheng Jin,Christoph Mordasini,Vivien Parmentier,Roy van Boekel,Thomas Henning,Jianghui Ji
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/795/1/65
Abstract: We apply hydrodynamic evaporation models to different synthetic planet populations that were obtained from a planet formation code based on a core-accretion paradigm. We investigated the evolution of the planet populations using several evaporation models, which are distinguished by the driving force of the escape flow (X-ray or EUV), the heating efficiency in energy-limited evaporation regimes, or both. Although the mass distribution of the planet populations is barely affected by evaporation, the radius distribution clearly shows a break at approximately 2 $R_{\oplus}$. We find that evaporation can lead to a bimodal distribution of planetary sizes (Owen & Wu 2013) and to an "evaporation valley" running diagonally downwards in the orbital distance - planetary radius plane, separating bare cores from low-mass planet that have kept some primordial H/He. Furthermore, this bimodal distribution is related to the initial characteristics of the planetary populations because low-mass planetary cores can only accrete small primordial H/He envelopes and their envelope masses are proportional to their core masses. We also find that the population-wide effect of evaporation is not sensitive to the heating efficiency of energy-limited description. However, in two extreme cases, namely without evaporation or with a 100\% heating efficiency in an evaporation model, the final size distributions show significant differences; these two scenarios can be ruled out from the size distribution of $Kepler$ candidates.
A Hamiltonian system of three degrees of freedom with eight channels of escape: The Great Escape  [PDF]
Euaggelos E. Zotos
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1007/s11071-013-1211-2
Abstract: In this work, we try to shed some light to the nature of orbits in a three-dimensional potential of a perturbed harmonic oscillator with eight possible channels of escape, which was chosen as an interesting example of open three-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. In particular, we conduct a thorough numerical investigation distinguishing between regular and chaotic orbits as well as between trapped and escaping orbits, considering unbounded motion for several values of the energy. In an attempt to discriminate safely and with certainty between ordered and chaotic motion, we use the Smaller ALingment Index (SALI) detector, computed by integrating numerically the basic equations of motion as well as the variational equations. Of particular interest, is to locate the basins of escape towards the different escape channels and connect them with the corresponding escape periods of the orbits. We split our study into three different cases depending on the initial value of the $z$ coordinate which was used for launching the test particles. We found, that when the orbits are started very close to the primary $(x,y)$ plane the respective grids exhibit a high degree of fractalization, while on the other hand for orbits with relatively high values of $z_0$ several well-formed basins of escape emerge thus, reducing significantly the fractalization of the grids. It was also observed, that for values of energy very close to the escape energy the escape times of orbits are large, while for energy levels much higher than the escape energy the vast majority of orbits escape extremely fast or even immediately to infinity. We hope our outcomes to be useful for a further understanding of the escape process in open 3D Hamiltonian systems.
Preface: Planetary Systems Beyond the Main Sequence 2010  [PDF]
Ulrich Heber,Horst Drechsel,Sonja Schuh
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1063/1.3570974
Abstract: Preface of Planetary Systems Beyond the Main Sequence including conference scope and summary, short overview of programme, acknowledgements of patronage, sponsors, the scientific organising committee, and the local organising committee.
The Great Escape: Viral Strategies to Counter BST-2/Tetherin  [PDF]
Janet L. Douglas,Jean K. Gustin,Kasinath Viswanathan,Mandana Mansouri,Ashlee V. Moses ,Klaus Früh
PLOS Pathogens , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000913
Abstract: The interferon-induced BST-2 protein has the unique ability to restrict the egress of HIV-1, Kaposi's sarcoma–associated herpesvirus (KSHV), Ebola virus, and other enveloped viruses. The observation that virions remain attached to the surface of BST-2-expressing cells led to the renaming of BST-2 as “tetherin”. However, viral proteins such as HIV-1 Vpu, simian immunodeficiency virus Nef, and KSHV K5 counteract BST-2, thereby allowing mature virions to readily escape from infected cells. Since the anti-viral function of BST-2 was discovered, there has been an explosion of research into several aspects of this intriguing interplay between host and virus. This review focuses on recent work addressing the molecular mechanisms involved in BST-2 restriction of viral egress and the species-specific countermeasures employed by various viruses.
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