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 Duncan A. Forbes Physics , 2002, Abstract: Globular clusters provide a unique probe of galaxy formation and evolution. Here I briefly summarize the known observational properties of globular cluster systems. One re-occurring theme is that the globular cluster systems of spirals and ellipticals are remarkably similar. Photometry, and the limited spectra available, are consistent with metal-poor clusters forming before the main spheroid component is established and the metal-rich ones forming at the same time as the spheroid in a burst of star formation. These observations are compared to a model for globular cluster formation in a LCDM hierarchical universe. One model result reported here is that S_N is determined at early times and little affected by late epoch mergers.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/783/2/136 Abstract: We investigate the relationship between star formation (SF) and substructure in a sample of 107 nearby galaxy clusters using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Several past studies of individual galaxy clusters have suggested that cluster mergers enhance cluster SF, while others find no such relationship. The SF fraction in multi-component clusters (0.228 +/- 0.007) is higher than that in single-component clusters (0.175 +/- 0.016) for galaxies with M^0.1_r < -20.5. In both single- and multi-component clusters, the fraction of star-forming galaxies increases with clustercentric distance and decreases with local galaxy number density, and multi-component clusters show a higher SF fraction than single-component clusters at almost all clustercentric distances and local densities. Comparing the SF fraction in individual clusters to several statistical measures of substructure, we find weak, but in most cases significant at greater than 2 sigma, correlations between substructure and SF fraction. These results could indicate that cluster mergers may cause weak but significant SF enhancement in clusters, or unrelaxed clusters exhibit slightly stronger SF due to their less evolved states relative to relaxed clusters.
 Physics , 2003, Abstract: Our numerical simulations first demonstrate that the pressure of ISM in a major merger becomes so high ($>$ $10^5$ $\rm k_{\rm B}$ K $\rm cm^{-3}$) that GMCs in the merger can collapse to form globular clusters (GCs) within a few Myr. The star formation efficiency within a GMC in galaxy mergers can rise up from a few percent to $\sim$ 80 percent, depending on the shapes and the temperature of the GMC. This implosive GC formation due to external high pressure of warm/hot ISM can be more efficient in the tidal tails or the central regions of mergers. The developed clusters have King-like profile with the effective radius of a few pc. The structural, kinematical, and chemical properties of these GC systems can depend on orbital and chemical properties of major mergers.
 Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/806/1/85 Abstract: We investigate the relationship between star formation (SF) and level of relaxation in a sample of 379 galaxy clusters at z < 0.2. We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to measure cluster membership and level of relaxation, and to select star-forming galaxies based on mid-infrared emission detected with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer. For galaxies with absolute magnitudes M_r < -19.5, we find an inverse correlation between SF fraction and cluster relaxation: as a cluster becomes less relaxed, its SF fraction increases. Furthermore, in general, the subtracted SF fraction in all unrelaxed clusters (0.117 +/- 0.003) is higher than that in all relaxed clusters (0.097 +/- 0.005). We verify the validity of our SF calculation methods and membership criteria through analysis of previous work. Our results agree with previous findings that a weak correlation exists between cluster SF and dynamical state, possibly because unrelaxed clusters are less evolved relative to relaxed clusters.
 Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/309323 Abstract: We examine the origin of clustercentric gradients in the star formation rates and colors of rich cluster galaxies within the context of a simple model where clusters are built through the ongoing accretion of field galaxies. The model assumes that after galaxies enter the cluster their star formation rates decline on a timescale of a few Gyrs, the typical gas consumption timescale of disk galaxies in the field. Such behaviour might be expected if tides and ram pressure strip off the gaseous envelopes that normally fuel star formation in spirals over a Hubble time. Combining these timescales with mass accretion histories derived from N-body simulations of cluster formation in a Lambda-CDM universe, we reproduce the systematic differences observed in the color distribution of cluster and field galaxies, as well as the strong suppression of star formation in cluster galaxies and its dependence on clustercentric radius. The simulations also indicate that a significant fraction of galaxies beyond the virial radius of the cluster may have been within the main body of the cluster in the past, a result that explains naturally why star formation in the outskirts of clusters (and as far out as two virial radii) is systematically suppressed relative to the field. The agreement with the data beyond the cluster virial radius is also improved if we assume that stripping happens within lower mass systems, before the galaxy is accreted into the main body of the cluster. We conclude that the star formation rates of cluster galaxies depend primarily on the time elapsed since their accretion onto massive virialized systems, and that the cessation of star formation may have taken place gradually over a few Gyrs.
 Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/734/2/95 Abstract: We have assembled a sample of high spatial resolution far-UV (Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys Solar Blind Channel) and Halpha (Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter) imaging for 15 cool core galaxy clusters. These data provide a detailed view of the thin, extended filaments in the cores of these clusters. Based on the ratio of the far-UV to Halpha luminosity, the UV spectral energy distribution, and the far-UV and Halpha morphology, we conclude that the warm, ionized gas in the cluster cores is photoionized by massive, young stars in all but a few (Abell 1991, Abell 2052, Abell 2580) systems. We show that the extended filaments, when considered separately, appear to be star-forming in the majority of cases, while the nuclei tend to have slightly lower far-UV luminosity for a given Halpha luminosity, suggesting a harder ionization source or higher extinction. We observe a slight offset in the UV/Halpha ratio from the expected value for continuous star formation which can be modeled by assuming intrinsic extinction by modest amounts of dust (E(B-V) ~ 0.2), or a top-heavy IMF in the extended filaments. The measured star formation rates vary from ~ 0.05 Msun/yr in the nuclei of non-cooling systems, consistent with passive, red ellipticals, to ~ 5 Msun/yr in systems with complex, extended, optical filaments. Comparing the estimates of the star formation rate based on UV, Halpha and infrared luminosities to the spectroscopically-determined X-ray cooling rate suggests a star formation efficiency of 14(+18)(-8)%. This value represents the time-averaged fraction, by mass, of gas cooling out of the intracluster medium which turns into stars, and agrees well with the global fraction of baryons in stars required by simulations to reproduce the stellar mass function for galaxies. This result provides a new constraint on the efficiency of star formation in accreting systems.
 Physics , 1994, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/276.2.417 Abstract: In this paper we investigate, using high resolution N-body simulations, the density profiles and the morphologies of galaxy clusters in seven models of structure formation. We show that these properties of clusters are closely related to the occurrence of a significant merging event in the recent past. The seven models are: (1) the standard CDM model (SCDM) with $\Omega_0 = 1$, $\Lambda_0=0$ and $h=0.5$; (2) a low-density flat model (FL03) with $\Omega_0=0.3$, $\Lambda_0=0.7$ and $h=0.75$; (3) an open model (OP03) with $\Omega_0=0.3$, $\Lambda_0=0$ and $h=0.75$; (4) a low-density flat model (FL02) with $\Omega_0=0.2$, $\Lambda_0=0.8$ and $h=1$; (5) an open model (OP02) with $\Omega_0=0.2$, $\Lambda_0=0$ and $h=1$; (6) a low-density flat model (FL01) with $\Omega_0=0.1$ and $\Lambda_0=0.9$; (7) an open model (OP01) with $\Omega_0=0.1$ and $\Lambda_0=0$. We find that the density profiles and morphologies of clusters depend both on $\Omega_0$ and on $\Lambda_0$. For $\Lambda_0=0$, these properties are a monotonic function of $\Omega_0$. Clusters in OP01 have the steepest density profiles, their density contours are the roundest and show the smallest center shifts. The other extreme case is SCDM, where clusters show the least steep density profiles and the most elongated contours. For a given $\Omega_0$ ($<1$), clusters in the flat model (i.e. with $\Lambda_0=1-\Omega_0$) have flatter density profiles and less substructures than in the corresponding open model. In particular, our results show that low-density flat models with $\Omega_0\sim 0.3$, which are currently considered as a successful alternative to SCDM, can produce a substantial fraction of clusters with substructures. This is in contrast to the conception that this kind of models may have serious problem in this aspect.
 Physics , 2009, Abstract: Most stars are born in rich young stellar clusters (YSCs) embedded in giant molecular clouds. The most massive stars live out their short lives there, profoundly influencing their natal environments by ionizing HII regions, inflating wind-blown bubbles, and soon exploding as supernovae. Thousands of lower-mass pre-main sequence stars accompany the massive stars, and the expanding HII regions paradoxically trigger new star formation as they destroy their natal clouds. While this schematic picture is established, our understanding of the complex astrophysical processes involved in clustered star formation have only just begun to be elucidated. The technologies are challenging, requiring both high spatial resolution and wide fields at wavelengths that penetrate obscuring molecular material and remove contaminating Galactic field stars. We outline several important projects for the coming decade: the IMFs and structures of YSCs; triggered star formation around YSC; the fate of OB winds; the stellar populations of Infrared Dark Clouds; the most massive star clusters in the Galaxy; tracing star formation throughout the Galactic Disk; the Galactic Center region and YSCs in the Magellanic Clouds. Programmatic recommendations include: developing a 30m-class adaptive optics infrared telescope; support for high-resolution and wide field X-ray telescopes; large-aperture sub-millimeter and far-infrared telescopes; multi-object infrared spectrographs; and both numerical and analytical theory.
 Physics , 1996, Abstract: We present a self-consistent approach to the modeling of X-ray clusters of galaxies in a flat universe. Employing the Press and Schechter (1974) formalism to derive the mass function and relating the observable properties of clusters to their virial mass allows us to study the cluster X-ray distribution functions and their evolution with redshift. This approach differs from some results based on the X-ray luminosity function, which we argue is subject to modeling uncertainties. We obtain stringent constraints on the power spectrum of the initial density perturbations assumed to seed galaxy formation by comparing the theoretical temperature function with available data: the amplitude $\sigma_8$ is found to be $0.57 \pm 0.05$, while the local spectral index $n$ is falling in the range $-2.4 \leq n \leq -1.5$ on scales between 5 and 15 $h^{-1}$ Mpc: the standard CDM model is clearly ruled out, independently of the normalization. We further examine the evolutionary properties of X-ray clusters. Our approach greatly clarifies the situation: contrary to some previous claims, we find that flat models are in reasonable agreement with the observed number of clusters at high redshif ts. We also examine the contribution of clusters to the X-ray counts and to the soft X-ray background and compare the expected values in the case of the $\Omega_0=1$ and $\Omega_0=0.2$ universes. The number counts are in agreement with the observations, further confirming the relevance of our modeling. We conclude that although clusters are not the primary source of the soft X-ray background, their contribution is nevertheless non-negligible. This is particularly important for they could escape the constraints imposed on possible point sources contributing to the background. Finally, we briefly
 Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1038/16410 Abstract: It is widely believed that structure in the Universe evolves hierarchically, as primordial density fluctuations, amplified by gravity, collapse and merge to form progressively larger systems. The structure and evolution of X-ray clusters, however, seems at odds with this hierarchical scenario for structure formation. Poor clusters and groups, as well as most distant clusters detected to date, are substantially fainter than expected from the tight relations between luminosity, temperature and redshift predicted by these models. Here we show that these discrepancies arise because, near the centre, the entropy of the hot, diffuse intracluster medium (ICM) is higher tha$achievable through gravitational collapse, indicating substantial non-gravitational heating of the ICM. We estimate this excess entropy for the first time, and argue that it represents a relic of the energetic winds through which forming galaxies polluted the ICM with metals. Energetically, this is onl$ possible if the ICM is heated at modest redshift ($z \ltsim 2$) but prior to cluster collapse, indicating that the formation of galaxies precedes that of clusters and that most clusters have been assembled very recently.
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