Abstract:
We review the recent results of heavy meson diffusion in thermal hadronic matter. The interactions of D and B-bar mesons with other hadrons (light mesons and baryons) are extracted from effective field theories based on chiral and heavy-quark symmetries. When these guiding principles are combined with exact unitarity, physical values of the cross sections are obtained. These cross sections (which contain resonant contributions) are used to calculate the drag and diffusion coefficients of heavy mesons immersed in a thermal and dense medium. The transport coefficients are computed using a Fokker-Planck reduction of the Boltzmann equation.

Abstract:
We show how to compute transport coefficients in gauge theories by considering the expansion of the Kubo formulas in terms of ladder diagrams in the imaginary time formalism. All summations over Matsubara frequencies are performed and the analytical continuation to get the retarded correlators is done. As an illustration of the procedure, we present a derivation of the transport equation for the shear viscosity in the scalar theory. Assuming the Hard Thermal Loop approximation for the screening of distant collisions of the hard particles in the plasma, we derive a couple of integral equations for the effective vertices which, to logarithmic accuracy, are shown to be identical to the linearized Boltzmann equations previously found by Arnold, Moore and Yaffe.

Abstract:
The transport properties of certain strongly coupled thermal gauge theories can be determined from their effective description in terms of gravity or superstring theory duals. Here we provide a short summary of the results for the shear and bulk viscosity, charge diffusion constant, and the speed of sound in supersymmetric strongly interacting plasmas. We also outline a general algorithm for computing transport coefficients in any gravity dual. The algorithm relates the transport coefficients to the coefficients in the quasinormal spectrum of five-dimensional black holes in asymptotically anti de Sitter space.

Abstract:
Recent progress in the description of the properties of hadronic atoms on the basis of non-relativistic effective Lagrangian approach and Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT) is reported. For the case of the pi(+)pi(-) atom decay, the problem is completely solved, both conceptually and numerically. For the pi(-)p atom, a general expression for the ground-state energy is obtained in the first non-leading order in isospin breaking, and the numerical analysis is carried out at O(p^2) in ChPT. We briefly consider a possible solution of the "potential model puzzle" in the hadronic atom problem, providing a constructive algorithm for the derivation of the isospin-breaking part of the short-range hadronic potential from field theory.

Abstract:
We compute the shear viscosity and the electrical conductivity in gauge theories with massive fermions at leading order in the large N_f expansion. The calculation is organized using the 1/N_f expansion of the 2PI effective action to next-to-leading order. We show explicitly that the calculation is gauge fixing independent and consistent with the Ward identity. We find that these transport coefficients depend in a nontrivial manner on the coupling constant and fermion mass. For large mass, both the shear viscosity and the electrical conductivity go to zero.

Abstract:
We develop a flexible quasiparticle theory of transport coefficients of hot hadronic matter at finite baryon density. We begin with a hadronic quasiparticle model which includes a scalar and a vector mean field. Quasiparticle energies and the mean fields depend on temperature and baryon chemical potential. Starting with the quasiparticle dispersion relation, we derive the Boltzmann equation and use the Chapman-Enskog expansion to derive formulas for the shear and bulk viscosities and thermal conductivity. We obtain both relaxation time approximation formulas and more general integral equations. Throughout the work, we explicitly enforce the Landau-Lifshitz conditions of fit and ensure the theory is thermodynamically self-consistent. The derived formulas should be useful for predicting the transport coefficients of the hadronic phase of matter produced in heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and at other accelerators.

Abstract:
We use the generalized entropy four-current of the Muller-Israel-Stewart (MIS) theory of relativistic dissipative fluids to obtain information about fluctuations around equilibrium. This allows one to compute the non-classical coefficients of the entropy 4-flux in terms of the equilibrium distribution functions. The Green-Kubo formulae are used to compute the classical or standard transport coefficients from the fluctuations of entropy due to dissipative fluxes.

Abstract:
We show that the lowest nontrivial truncation of the two-particle irreducible (2PI) effective action correctly determines transport coefficients in a weak coupling or 1/N expansion at leading (logarithmic) order in several relativistic field theories. In particular, we consider a single real scalar field with cubic and quartic interactions in the loop expansion, the O(N) model in the 2PI-1/N expansion, and QED with a single and many fermion fields. Therefore, these truncations will provide a correct description, to leading (logarithmic) order, of the long time behavior of these systems, i.e. the approach to equilibrium. This supports the promising results obtained for the dynamics of quantum fields out of equilibrium using 2PI effective action techniques.

Abstract:
The theory of heat transfer by electromagnetic radiation is based on the radiative transfer equation (RTE) for the radiation intensity, or equivalently on the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) for the photon distribution. We focus in this review article, after a brief overview on different solution methods, on a recently introduced approach based on truncated moment expansion. Due to the linearity of the underlying BTE, the appropriate closure of the system of moment equations is entropy production rate minimization. This closure provides a distribution function and the associated effective transport coefficients, like mean absorption coefficients and the Eddington factor, for an arbitrary number of moments. The moment approach is finally illustrated with an application of the two-moment equations to an electrical arc.

Abstract:
We construct the potentials that describe the spectrum and decay of electromagnetic bound states of hadrons, and are consistent with ChPT. These potentials satisfy the matching condition which enables one to express the parameters of the potential through the threshold scattering amplitudes calculated in ChPT. We further analyze the ambiguity in the choice of the short-range hadronic potentials, which satisfy this matching condition.