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 Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/733/2/82 Abstract: Using archival as well as freshly acquired data, we assess the X-ray behaviour of the Fermi/LAT gamma-ray pulsars listed in the First Fermi source catalog. After revisiting the relationships between the pulsars' rotational energy losses and their X and gamma-ray luminosities, we focus on the distance-indipendent gamma to X-ray flux ratios. When plotting our Fgamma/Fx values as a function of the pulsars' rotational energy losses, one immediately sees that pulsars with similar energetics have Fgamma/Fx spanning 3 decades. Such spread, most probably stemming from vastly different geometrical configurations of the X and gamma-ray emitting regions, defies any straightforward interpretation of the plot. Indeed, while energetic pulsars do have low Fgamma/Fx values, little can be said for the bulk of the Fermi neutron stars. Dividing our pulsar sample into radio-loud and radio-quiet subsamples, we find that, on average, radio-quiet pulsars do have higher values of Fgamma/Fx, implying an intrinsec faintness of their X-ray emission and/or a different geometrical configuration. Moreover, despite the large spread mentioned above, statistical tests show a lower scatter in the radio-quiet dataset with respect to the radio-loud one, pointing to a somewhat more constrained geometry for the radio-quiet objects with respect to the radio-loud ones.
 Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1017/S174392131202323X Abstract: The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite is the first gamma-ray instrument to discover pulsars directly via their gamma-ray emission. Roughly one third of the 117 gamma-ray pulsars detected by the LAT in its first three years were discovered in blind searches of gamma-ray data and most of these are undetectable with current radio telescopes. I review some of the key LAT results and highlight the specific challenges faced in gamma-ray (compared to radio) searches, most of which stem from the long, sparse data sets and the broad, energy-dependent point-spread function (PSF) of the LAT. I discuss some ongoing LAT searches for gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs) and gamma-ray pulsars around the Galactic Center. Finally, I outline the prospects for future gamma-ray pulsar discoveries as the LAT enters its extended mission phase, including advantages of a possible modification of the LAT observing profile.
 Physics , 2009, Abstract: The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST), with its improved sensitivity relative to previous generation gamma-ray telescopes, is significantly increasing the number of known gamma-ray sources in the sky, including pulsars. In addition to searching for gamma-ray emission from known radio pulsars, it is now possible to successfully perform blind searches for pulsars on the gamma-ray data alone, with the goal of uncovering a new population of potentially radio-quiet (Geminga-like) pulsars. We describe our methods and some recent results from our searches, performed using the time-differencing technique, which have resulted in the discovery of a large number of new gamma-ray pulsars.
 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1002/asna.201312034 Abstract: The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi has detected ~150 gamma-ray pulsars, about a third of which were discovered in blind searches of the $\gamma$-ray data. Because the angular resolution of the LAT is relatively poor and blind searches for pulsars (especially millisecond pulsars, MSPs) are very sensitive to an error in the position, one must typically scan large numbers of locations. Identifying plausible X-ray counterparts of a putative pulsar drastically reduces the number of trials, thus improving the sensitivity of pulsar blind searches with the LAT. I discuss our ongoing program of Swift, XMM-Newton, and Chandra observations of LAT unassociated sources in the context of our blind searches for gamma-ray pulsars.
 Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1063/1.4772255 Abstract: The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi satellite has detected ~120 pulsars above 100 MeV. While most gamma-ray pulsars have spectra that are well modeled by a power law with an exponential cut-off at around a few GeV, some show significant pulsed high-energy (HE, >10 GeV) emission. I present a study of HE emission from LAT gamma-ray pulsars and discuss prospects for the detection of pulsations at very high energies (VHE, >100 GeV) with ground-based instruments.
 The Fermi-LAT Collaboration Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1126/science.1175558 Abstract: Pulsars are rapidly-rotating, highly-magnetized neutron stars emitting radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are more than 1800 known radio pulsars, until recently, only seven were observed to pulse in gamma rays and these were all discovered at other wavelengths. The Fermi Large Area Telescope makes it possible to pinpoint neutron stars through their gamma-ray pulsations. We report the detection of 16 gamma-ray pulsars in blind frequency searches using the LAT. Most of these pulsars are coincident with previously unidentified gamma-ray sources, and many are associated with supernova remnants. Direct detection of gamma-ray pulsars enables studies of emission mechanisms, population statistics and the energetics of pulsar wind nebulae and supernova remnants.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.7868/S0370274X14230015 Abstract: The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed more than a hundred of gamma-ray pulsars, about one third of which are radio-quiet, i.e. not detected at radio frequencies. The most of radio-loud pulsars are detected by Fermi LAT by using the radio timing models, while the radio-quiet ones are discovered in a blind search. The difference in the techniques introduces an observational selection bias and, consequently, the direct comparison of populations is complicated. In order to produce an unbiased sample, we perform a blind search of gamma-ray pulsations using Fermi-LAT data alone. No radio data or observations at optical or X-ray frequencies are involved in the search process. We produce a gamma-ray selected catalog of 25 non-recycled gamma-ray pulsars found in a blind search, including 16 radio-quiet and 9 radio-loud pulsars. This results in the direct measurement of the fraction of radio-quiet pulsars $\varepsilon_{RQ} = 64\pm 10\%$, which is in agreement with the existing estimates from the population modeling in the outer magnetosphere model. The Polar cap models are disfavored due to a lower expected fraction and the prediction of age dependence. The age, gamma-ray energy flux, spin-down luminosity and sky location distributions of the radio-loud and radio-quiet pulsars from the catalog do not demonstrate any statistically significant difference. The results indicate that the radio-quiet and radio-loud pulsars belong to one and the same population. The catalog shows no evidence for the radio beam evolution.
 Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/744/2/105 Abstract: We report the discovery of nine previously unknown gamma-ray pulsars in a blind search of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The pulsars were found with a novel hierarchical search method originally developed for detecting continuous gravitational waves from rapidly rotating neutron stars. Designed to find isolated pulsars spinning at up to kHz frequencies, the new method is computationally efficient, and incorporates several advances, including a metric-based gridding of the search parameter space (frequency, frequency derivative and sky location) and the use of photon probability weights. The nine pulsars have spin frequencies between 3 and 12 Hz, and characteristic ages ranging from 17 kyr to 3 Myr. Two of them, PSRs J1803-2149 and J2111+4606, are young and energetic Galactic-plane pulsars (spin-down power above 6e35 erg/s and ages below 100 kyr). The seven remaining pulsars, PSRs J0106+4855, J0622+3749, J1620-4927, J1746-3239, J2028+3332, J2030+4415, J2139+4716, are older and less energetic; two of them are located at higher Galactic latitudes (|b| > 10 deg). PSR J0106+4855 has the largest characteristic age (3 Myr) and the smallest surface magnetic field (2e11 G) of all LAT blind-search pulsars. PSR J2139+4716 has the lowest spin-down power (3e33 erg/s) among all non-recycled gamma-ray pulsars ever found. Despite extensive multi-frequency observations, only PSR J0106+4855 has detectable pulsations in the radio band. The other eight pulsars belong to the increasing population of radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars.
 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/725/1/571 Abstract: We report the discovery of eight gamma-ray pulsars in blind frequency searches using the LAT, onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Five of the eight pulsars are young (tau_c<100 kyr), energetic (Edot>10^36 erg/s), and located within the Galactic plane (|b|<3 deg). The remaining three are older, less energetic, and located off the plane. Five pulsars are associated with sources included in the LAT bright gamma-ray source list, but only one, PSR J1413-6205, is clearly associated with an EGRET source. PSR J1023-5746 has the smallest characteristic age (tau_c=4.6 kyr) and is the most energetic (Edot=1.1E37 erg/s) of all gamma-ray pulsars discovered so far in blind searches. PSRs J1957+5033 and J2055+25 have the largest characteristic ages (tau_c~1 Myr) and are the least energetic (Edot~5E33 erg/s) of the newly-discovered pulsars. We present the timing models, light curves, and detailed spectral parameters of the new pulsars. We used recent XMM observations to identify the counterpart of PSR J2055+25 as XMMU J205549.4+253959. In addition, publicly available archival Chandra X-ray data allowed us to identify the likely counterpart of PSR J1023-5746 as a faint, highly absorbed source, CXOU J102302.8-574606. The large X-ray absorption indicates that this could be among the most distant gamma-ray pulsars detected so far. PSR J1023-5746 is positionally coincident with the TeV source HESS J1023-575, located near the young stellar cluster Westerlund 2, while PSR J1954+2836 is coincident with a 4.3 sigma excess reported by Milagro at a median energy of 35 TeV. Deep radio follow-up observations of the eight pulsars resulted in no detections of pulsations and upper limits comparable to the faintest known radio pulsars, indicating that these can be included among the growing population of radio-quiet pulsars in our Galaxy being uncovered by the LAT, and currently numbering more than 20.
 Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv2612 Abstract: We explore a non-stationary outer gap scenario for gamma-ray emission process in pulsar magnetosphere. Electrons/positrons that migrate along the magnetic field line and enter the outer gap from the outer/inner boundaries activate the pair-creation cascade and high-energy emission process. In our model, the rate of the particle injection at the gap boundaries is key physical quantity to control the gap structure and properties of the gamma-ray spectrum. Our model assumes that the injection rate is time variable and the observed gamma-ray spectrum are superposition of the emissions from different gap structures with different injection rates at the gap boundaries. The calculated spectrum superposed by assuming power law distribution of the particle injection rate can reproduce sub-exponential cut-off feature in the gamma-ray spectrum observed by Fermi-LAT. We fit the phase-averaged spectra for 43 young/middle-age pulsars and 14 millisecond pulsars with the model. Our results imply that (1) a larger particle injection at the gap boundaries is more frequent for the pulsar with a larger spin down power and (2) outer gap with an injection rate much smaller than the Goldreich-Julian value produces observe $>10$GeV emissions. Fermi-LAT gamma-ray pulsars show that (i) the observed gamma-ray spectrum below cut-off energy tends to be softer for the pulsar with a higher spin down rate and (ii) the second peak is more prominent in higher energy bands. Based on the results of the fitting, we describe possible theoretical interpretations for these observational properties. We also briefly discuss Crab-like millisecond pulsars that show phase-aligned radio and gamma-ray pulses.
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