Abstract:
We show that the braid-group extension of the monodromy-based topological quantum computation scheme of Das Sarma et al. can be understood in terms of the universal R matrix for the Ising model giving similar results to those obtained by direct analytic continuation of multi-anyon Pfaffian wave functions. It is necessary, however, to take into account the projection on spinor states with definite total parity which is responsible for the topological entanglement in the Pfaffian topological quantum computer.

Abstract:
We show how a universal gate set for topological quantum computation in the Ising TQFT, the non-Abelian sector of the putative effective field theory of the $\nu=5/2$ fractional quantum Hall state, can be implemented. This implementation does not require overpasses or surgery, unlike the construction of Bravyi and Kitaev, which we take as a starting point. However, it requires measurements of the topological charge around time-like loops encircling moving quasiaparticles, which require the ability to perform `tilted' interferometry measurements.

Abstract:
We prove that the 2D Ising model is complete in the sense that the partition function of any classical q-state spin model (on an arbitrary graph) can be expressed as a special instance of the partition function of a 2D Ising model with complex inhomogeneous couplings and external fields. In the case where the original model is an Ising or Potts-type model, we find that the corresponding 2D square lattice requires only polynomially more spins w.r.t the original one, and we give a constructive method to map such models to the 2D Ising model. For more general models the overhead in system size may be exponential. The results are established by connecting classical spin models with measurement-based quantum computation and invoking the universality of the 2D cluster states.

Abstract:
Conformal field theory predicts finite-size scaling amplitudes of correlation lengths universally related to critical exponents on sphere-like, semi-finite systems $S^{d-1}\times\mathbb{R}$ of arbitrary dimensionality $d$. Numerical studies have up to now been unable to validate this result due to the intricacies of lattice discretisation of such curved spaces. We present a cluster-update Monte Carlo study of the Ising model on a three-dimensional geometry using slightly irregular lattices that confirms the validity of a linear amplitude-exponent relation to high precision.

Abstract:
We present a novel scheme for universal quantum computation based on spinless interacting bosonic quantum walkers on a piecewise-constant graph, described by the two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model. Arbitrary X and Z rotations are constructed, as well as an entangling two-qubit CPHASE gate and a SWAP gate. Quantum information is encoded in the positions of the walkers on the graph, as in previous quantum walk-based proposals for universal quantum computation, though in contrast to prior schemes this proposal requires a number of vertices only linear in the number of encoded qubits. It allows single-qubit measurements to be performed in a straightforward manner with localized operators, and can make use of existing quantum error correcting codes either directly within the universal gate set provided, or by extending the lattice to a third dimension. We present an intuitive example of a logical encoding to implement the seven-qubit Steane code. Finally, an implementation in terms of ultracold atoms in optical lattices is suggested.

Abstract:
We review recent results concerning finite size corrections to the Ising model free energy on lattices with non-trivial topology and curvature. From conformal field theory considerations two distinct universal terms are expected, a logarithmic term determined by the system curvature and a scale invariant term determined by the system shape and topology. Both terms have been observed numerically, using the Kasteleyn Pfaffian method, for lattices with topologies ranging from the sphere to that of a genus two surface. The constant term is shown to be expressible in terms of Riemann theta functions while the logarithmic correction reproduces the theoretical prediction by Cardy and Peschel for singular metrics.

Abstract:
In this article we extend on work which establishes an analology between one-way quantum computation and thermodynamics to see how the former can be performed on fractal lattices. We find fractals lattices of arbitrary dimension greater than one which do all act as good resources for one-way quantum computation, and sets of fractal lattices with dimension greater than one all of which do not. The difference is put down to other topological factors such as ramification and connectivity. This work adds confidence to the analogy and highlights new features to what we require for universal resources for one-way quantum computation.

Abstract:
We consider topological quantum memories for a general class of abelian anyon models defined on spin lattices. These are non-universal for quantum computation when restricting to topological operations alone, such as braiding and fusion. The effects of additional non-topological operations, such as spin measurements, are studied. These are shown to allow universal quantum computation, while still utilizing topological protection. Our work gives an insight into the relation between abelian models and their non-abelian counterparts.

Abstract:
Turing machines and G\"odel numbers are important pillars of the theory of computation. Thus, any computational architecture needs to show how it could relate to Turing machines and how stable implementations of Turing computation are possible. In this chapter, we implement universal Turing computation in a neural field environment. To this end, we employ the canonical symbologram representation of a Turing machine obtained from a G\"odel encoding of its symbolic repertoire and generalized shifts. The resulting nonlinear dynamical automaton (NDA) is a piecewise affine-linear map acting on the unit square that is partitioned into rectangular domains. Instead of looking at point dynamics in phase space, we then consider functional dynamics of probability distributions functions (p.d.f.s) over phase space. This is generally described by a Frobenius-Perron integral transformation that can be regarded as a neural field equation over the unit square as feature space of a dynamic field theory (DFT). Solving the Frobenius-Perron equation yields that uniform p.d.f.s with rectangular support are mapped onto uniform p.d.f.s with rectangular support, again. We call the resulting representation \emph{dynamic field automaton}.

Abstract:
We describe how microwave spectroscopy of cold fermions in quasi-1D traps can be used to detect, manipulate, and entangle exotic non-local qbits associated with "Majorana" edge modes. We present different approaches to generate the p-wave superfluidity which is responsible for these topological zero-energy edge modes. We find that the edge modes have clear signatures in the microwave spectrum, and that the line shape distinguishes between the degenerate states of a qbit encoded in these edge modes. Moreover, the microwaves rotate the system in its degenerate ground-state manifold. We use these rotations to implement a set of universal quantum gates, allowing the system to be used as a universal quantum computer.