Abstract:
Shubnikov-de Haas measurements of high quality URu2Si2 single crystals reveal two previously unobserved Fermi surface branches in the so-called hidden order phase. Therefore about 55% of the enhanced mass is now detected. Under pressure in the antiferromagnetic state, the Shubnikov-de Haas frequencies for magnetic fields applied along the crystalline c axis show little change compared with the zero pressure data. This implies a similar Fermi surface in both the hidden order and antiferromagnetic states, which strongly suggests that the lattice doubling in the antiferromagnetic phase due to the ordering vector QAF = (0 0 1) already occurs in the hidden order. These measurements provide a good test for existing or future theories of the hidden order parameter.

Abstract:
We have investigated Haldane's conjecture for the S=2 isotropic antiferromagnetic quantum spin chain with nearest-neighbor exchange J. Using a density matrix renormalization group algorithm for chains up to L=350 spins, we find in the thermodynamic limit a finite spin gap of Delta = 0.085(5)J and a finite spin-spin correlation length xi = 49(1) lattice spacings. We establish the ground state energy per bond to be E_0=-4.761248(1)J. We show that the ground state has a hidden topological order that is revealed in a nonlocal string correlation function. This means that the physics of the S=2 chain can be captured by a valence-bond solid description. We also observe effective free spin-1 states at the ends of an open S=2 chain.

Abstract:
Ground-state properties of the spin-1 two-leg antiferromagnetic ladder are investigated precisely by means of the quantum Monte Carlo method. It is found that the correlation length along the chains and the spin gap both remain finite regardless of the strength of interchain coupling, i.e., the Haldane state and the spin-1 dimer state are connected smoothly without any quantum phase transitions between them. We propose a plaquette-singlet solid state, which qualitatively describes the ground state of the spin-1 ladder quite well, and also a corresponding topological hidden order parameter. It is shown numerically that the new hidden order parameter remains finite up to the dimer limit, though the conventional string order defined on each chain vanishes immediately when infinitesimal interchain coupling is introduced.

Abstract:
We propose a candidate for the hidden order in URu2Si2: a rank-5 E type spin density wave between Uranium 5f crystal field doublets breaking time reversal and lattice tetragonal symmetry in a manner consistent with recent torque measurements [R. Okazaki et al, Science 331, 439 (2011)]. We argue that coupling of this order parameter to magnetic probes can be hidden by crystal field effects, while still having significant effects on transport, thermodynamics and magnetic susceptibilities. In a simple tight-binding model for the heavy quasiparticles, we show the connection between the hidden order and antiferromagnetic phases arises since they form different components of this single rank-5 pseudo-spin vector. Using a phenomenological theory, we show the experimental pressure-temperature phase diagram can be qualitatively reproduced by tuning terms which break pseudo-spin rotational symmetry. As a test of our proposal, we predict the presence of small magnetic moments in the basal plane oriented in the [110] direction ordered at the wave-vector (0,0,1).

Abstract:
We investigate the phase diagram of antiferromagnetic spin ladders with additional exchange interactions on diagonal bonds by variational and numerical methods. These generalized spin ladders interpolate smoothly between the $S=1/2$ chain with competing nn and nnn interactions, the $S=1/2$ chain with alternating exchange and the antiferromagnetic $S=1$ chain. The Majumdar-Ghosh ground states are formulated as matrix product states and are shown to exhibit the same type of hidden order as the af $S=1$ chain. Generalized matrix product states are used for a variational calculation of the ground state energy and the spin and string correlation functions. Numerical (Lanczos) calculations of the energies of the ground state and of the low-lying excited states are performed, and compare reasonably with the variational approach. Our results support the hypothesis that the dimer and Majumdar-Ghosh points are in the same phase as the af $S=1$ chain.

Abstract:
The ground-state properties of a spin $S=1/2$ tetrameric Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain with alternating couplings AF$_{1}$-AF$_{2}$-AF$_{1}$% -F (AF and F denote antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic couplings, respectively) are studied by means of the density matrix renormalization group method. Two plateaux of magnetization $m$ are found at $m=0$ and 1/4% . It is shown that in such a spin-1/2 AF system, there is a gap from the singlet ground state to the triplet excited states in the absence of a magnetic field. The spin-spin correlation function decays exponentially, and the gapped states have a nonvanishing string order, which measures a hidden symmetry in the system. By a dual transformation, the string order is transformed into a ferromagnetic order and the hidden symmetry is unveiled to be a $Z_{2}\times Z_{2}$ discrete symmetry, which is fully broken in the gapped states. This half-integer spin Heisenberg AF chain is in a Haldane-like phase, suggesting that the present findings extend the substance of Haldane's scenario. A valence-bond-solid state picture is also proposed for the gapped states.

Abstract:
X-ray diffraction experiments under pressure in a diamond anvil cell have been performed to gauge any response of the crystalline lattice of URu2Si2 to the "hidden order" or antiferromagnetic transitions, the latter of which is accessible only with applied pressure. The ambient-pressure crystal structure of URu2Si2 persists to high pressure, and structural characterization reveals a reasonably robust crystal lattice with respect to both of the aforementioned temperature-induced electronic transitions. Coupling between the lattice and the "hidden order" transition is reconfirmed to be subtle, and that subtle sensitivity is extended to the antiferromagnetic transition. The pressure-dependent evolution of the lattice parameters indicates a slightly anisotropic compression of the unit cell, which results in a decrease in the lattice c/a ratio with increasing pressure. From compression data, the bulk modulus is estimated to be B_0~190 GPa. While the unit cell volume undergoes compression, the Ru-Si layers separating the U planes evince an apparent "flattening," resulting in a more 2D-like structure and an increased volume per U ion.

Abstract:
The epitaxial strain effects on the magnetic ground state of YTiO$_3$ films grown on LaAlO$_3$ substrates have been studied using the first-principles density-functional theory. With the in-plane compressive strain induced by LaAlO$_3$ (001) substrate, A-type antiferromagnetic order emerges against the original ferromagnetic order. This phase transition from ferromagnet to A-type antiferromagnet in YTiO$_3$ film is robust since the energy gain is about 7.64 meV per formula unit despite the Hubbard interaction and modest lattice changes, even though the A-type antiferromagnetic order does not exist in any $R$TiO$_3$ bulks.

Abstract:
We report soft point-contact spectroscopy studies of URu2Si2 both in the hidder order (HO) and the large-moment antiferromagnetic (LMAF) states accessed by pressure. In the HO state at ambient pressure, the spectroscopy shows two asymmetric peaks around the Fermi energy that emerge below the hidden order temperature T_{HO}. In the LMAF state at higher pressures, the spectra are remarkably similar to those in the HO state, indicating a similar Fermi surface gapping in the HO and LMAF states and providing a new clue to unraveling the puzzling HO state.

Abstract:
Large spin systems can exhibit unconventional types of magnetic ordering different from the ferromagnetic or N\'eel-like antiferromagnetic order commonly found in spin 1/2 systems. Spin-nematic phases, for instance, do not break time-reversal invariance and their magnetic order parameter is characterized by a second rank tensor with the symmetry of an ellipsoid. Here we show direct experimental evidence for spin-nematic ordering in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate of sodium atoms with antiferromagnetic interactions. In a mean field description this order is enforced by locking the relative phase between spin components. We reveal this mechanism by studying the spin noise after a spin rotation, which is shown to contain information hidden when looking only at averages. The method should be applicable to high spin systems in order to reveal complex magnetic phases.