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Electronics and data acquisition demonstrator for a kinetic inductance camera  [PDF]
O. Bourrion,A. Bideaud,A. Benoit,A. Cruciani,J. F. Macias-Perez,A. Monfardini,M. Roesch,L. Swenson,C. Vescovi
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/6/06/P06012
Abstract: A prototype of digital frequency multiplexing electronics allowing the real time monitoring of kinetic inductance detector (KIDs) arrays for mm-wave astronomy has been developed. It requires only 2 coaxial cables for instrumenting a large array. For that, an excitation comb of frequencies is generated and fed through the detector. The direct frequency synthesis and the data acquisition relies heavily on a large FPGA using parallelized and pipelined processing. The prototype can instrument 128 resonators (pixels) over a bandwidth of 125 MHz. This paper describes the technical solution chosen, the algorithm used and the results obtained.
A passive THz video camera based on lumped element kinetic inductance detectors  [PDF]
Sam Rowe,Enzo Pascale,Simon Doyle,Chris Dunscombe,Peter Hargrave,Andreas Papageorgio,Ken Wood,Peter A. R. Ade,Peter Barry,Aurélien Bideaud,Tom Brien,Chris Dodd,William Grainger,Julian House,Philip Mauskopf,Paul Moseley,Locke Spencer,Rashmi Sudiwala,Carole Tucker,Ian Walker
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We have developed a passive 350 GHz (850 {\mu}m) video-camera to demonstrate lumped element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) -- designed originally for far-infrared astronomy -- as an option for general purpose terrestrial terahertz imaging applications. The camera currently operates at a quasi-video frame rate of 2 Hz with a noise equivalent temperature difference per frame of $\sim$0.1 K, which is close to the background limit. The 152 element superconducting LEKID array is fabricated from a simple 40 nm aluminum film on a silicon dielectric substrate and is read out through a single microwave feedline with a cryogenic low noise amplifier and room temperature frequency domain multiplexing electronics.
The NIKA instrument: results and perspectives towards a permanent KID based camera for the Pico Veleta observatory  [PDF]
A. D'Addabbo,R. Adam,A. Adane,P. Ade,P. André,A. Beelen,B. Belier,A. Benoit,A. Bideaud,N. Billot,O. Bourrion,M. Calvo,A. Catalano,G. Coiffard,B. Comis,F. -X. Désert,S. Doyle,J. Goupy,C. Kramer,S. Leclercq,J. Macias-Perez,J. Martino,P. Mauskopf,F. Mayet,A. Monfardini,F. Pajot,E. Pascale,N. Ponthieu,V. Revéret,L. Rodriguez,G. Savini,K. F. Schuster,A. Sievers,C. Tucker,R. Zylka
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: The New IRAM KIDs Array (NIKA) is a pathfinder instrument devoted to millimetric astronomy. In 2009 it was the first multiplexed KID camera on the sky; currently it is installed at the focal plane of the IRAM 30-meters telescope at Pico Veleta (Spain). We present preliminary data from the last observational run and the ongoing developments devoted to the next NIKA-2 kilopixels camera, to be commissioned in 2015. We also report on the latest laboratory measurements, and recent improvements in detector cosmetics and read-out electronics. Furthermore, we describe a new acquisition strategy allowing us to improve the photometric accuracy, and the related automatic tuning procedure.
Status of MUSIC, the MUltiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera  [PDF]
Sunil R. Golwala,Clint Bockstiegel,Spencer Brugger,Nicole G. Czakon,Peter K. Day,Thomas P. Downes,Ran Duan,Jiansong Gao,Amandeep K. Gill,Jason Glenn,Matthew I. Hollister,Henry G. LeDuc,Philip R. Maloney,Benjamin A. Mazin,Sean G. McHugh,David Miller,Omid Noroozian,Hien T. Nguyen,Jack Sayers,James A. Schlaerth,Seth Siegel,Anastasios K. Vayonakis,Philip R. Wilson,Jonas Zmuidzinas
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1117/12.926055
Abstract: We present the status of MUSIC, the MUltiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera, a new instrument for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. MUSIC is designed to have a 14', diffraction-limited field-of-view instrumented with 2304 detectors in 576 spatial pixels and four spectral bands at 0.87, 1.04, 1.33, and 1.98 mm. MUSIC will be used to study dusty star-forming galaxies, galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, and star formation in our own and nearby galaxies. MUSIC uses broadband superconducting phased-array slot-dipole antennas to form beams, lumped-element on-chip bandpass filters to define spectral bands, and microwave kinetic inductance detectors to senseincoming light. The focal plane is fabricated in 8 tiles consisting of 72 spatial pixels each. It is coupled to the telescope via an ambient temperature ellipsoidal mirror and a cold reimaging lens. A cold Lyot stop sits at the image of the primary mirror formed by the ellipsoidal mirror. Dielectric and metal mesh filters are used to block thermal infrared and out-of-band radiation. The instrument uses a pulse tube cooler and 3He/3He/4He closed-cycle cooler to cool the focal plane to below 250 mK. A multilayer shield attenuates Earth's magnetic field. Each focal plane tile is read out by a single pair of coaxes and a HEMT amplifier. The readout system consists of 16 copies of custom-designed ADC/DAC and IF boards coupled to the CASPER ROACH platform. We focus on recent updates on the instrument design and results from the commissioning of the full camera in 2012.
Superconductor Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors: System Model of the Readout Electronics
F. Alimenti,M. Ercoli,V. Palazzari,L. Roselli
Radioengineering , 2009,
Abstract: This paper deals with the readout electronics needed by superconductor Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). MKIDs are typically implemented in the form of cryogenic-cooled high quality factor microwave resonator. The natural frequency of these resonators changes as a millimeter or sub-millimeter wave radiation impinges on the resonator itself. A quantitative system model of the readout electronics (very similar to that of a vector network analyzer) has been implemented under ADS environment and tested by several simulation experiments. The developed model is a tool to further optimize the readout electronic and to design the frequency allocation of parallel-connected MKIDs resonators. The applications of MKIDs will be in microwave and millimeter-wave radiometric imaging as well as in radio-astronomy focal plane arrays.
A dual-band millimeter-wave kinetic inductance camera for the IRAM 30-meter telescope  [PDF]
A. Monfardini,A. Benoit,A. Bideaud,L. J. Swenson,M. Roesch,F. X. Desert,S. Doyle,A. Endo,A. Cruciani,P. Ade,A. M. Baryshev,J. J. A. Baselmans,O. Bourrion,M. Calvo,P. Camus,L. Ferrari,C. Giordano,C. Hoffmann,S. Leclercq,J. F. Macias-Perez,P. Mauskopf,K. F. Schuster,C. Tucker,C. Vescovi,S. J. C. Yates
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/194/2/24
Abstract: Context. The Neel IRAM KIDs Array (NIKA) is a fully-integrated measurement system based on kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) currently being developed for millimeter wave astronomy. In a first technical run, NIKA was successfully tested in 2009 at the Institute for Millimetric Radio Astronomy (IRAM) 30-meter telescope at Pico Veleta, Spain. This prototype consisted of a 27-42 pixel camera imaging at 150 GHz. Subsequently, an improved system has been developed and tested in October 2010 at the Pico Veleta telescope. The instrument upgrades included dual-band optics allowing simultaneous imaging at 150 GHz and 220 GHz, faster sampling electronics enabling synchronous measurement of up to 112 pixels per measurement band, improved single-pixel sensitivity, and the fabrication of a sky simulator to replicate conditions present at the telescope. Results. The new dual-band NIKA was successfully tested in October 2010, performing in-line with sky simulator predictions. Initially the sources targeted during the 2009 run were re-imaged, verifying the improved system performance. An optical NEP was then calculated to be around 2 \dot 10-16 W/Hz1/2. This improvement in comparison with the 2009 run verifies that NIKA is approaching the target sensitivity for photon-noise limited ground-based detectors. Taking advantage of the larger arrays and increased sensitivity, a number of scientifically-relevant faint and extended objects were then imaged including the Galactic Center SgrB2(FIR1), the radio galaxy Cygnus A and the NGC1068 Seyfert galaxy. These targets were all observed simultaneously in the 150 GHz and 220 GHz atmospheric windows.
NIKA: A millimeter-wave kinetic inductance camera  [PDF]
A. Monfardini,L. J. Swenson,A. Bideaud,F. X. Désert,S. J. C. Yates,A. Benoit,A. M. Baryshev,J. J. A. Baselmans,S. Doyle,B. Klein,M. Roesch,C. Tucker,P. Ade,M. Calvo,P. Camus,C. Giordano,R. Guesten,C. Hoffmann,S. Leclercq,P. Mauskopf,K. F. Schuster
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201014727
Abstract: Current generation millimeter wavelength detectors suffer from scaling limits imposed by complex cryogenic readout electronics. To circumvent this it is imperative to investigate technologies that intrinsically incorporate strong multiplexing. One possible solution is the kinetic inductance detector (KID). In order to assess the potential of this nascent technology, a prototype instrument optimized for the 2 mm atmospheric window was constructed. Known as the N\'eel IRAM KIDs Array (NIKA), it was recently tested at the Institute for Millimetric Radio Astronomy (IRAM) 30-meter telescope at Pico Veleta, Spain. The measurement resulted in the imaging of a number of sources, including planets, quasars, and galaxies. The images for Mars, radio star MWC349, quasar 3C345, and galaxy M87 are presented. From these results, the optical NEP was calculated to be around $1 \times 10^{-15}$ W$ / $Hz$^{1/2}$. A factor of 10 improvement is expected to be readily feasible by improvements in the detector materials and reduction of performance-degrading spurious radiation.
Silicon Drift Detector Readout Electronics for a Compton Camera  [PDF]
T. Conka Nurdan,K. Nurdan,A. H. Walenta,H. J. Besch,C. Fiorini,B. Freisleben,N. A. Pavel
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2003.12.038
Abstract: A prototype detector for Compton camera imaging is under development. A monolithic array of 19 channel Silicon drift detector with on-chip electronics is going to be used as a scatter detector for the prototype system. Custom designed analog and digital readout electronics for this detector was first tested by using a single cell Silicon drift detector. This paper describes the readout architecture and presents the results of the measurement.
The ASTRI SST-2M Prototype: Camera and Electronics  [PDF]
Osvaldo Catalano,Salvo Giarrusso,Giovanni La Rosa,Maria Concetta Maccarone,Teresa Mineo,Francesco Russo,Giuseppe Sottile,Domenico Impiombato,Giovanni Bonanno,Massimiliano Belluso,Sergio Billotta,Alessandro Grillo,Davide Marano,Vincenzo De Caprio,Mauro Fiorini,Luca Stringhetti,for the ASTRI Collaboration,Salvo GAROZZO,Giuseppe ROMEO
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: ASTRI is a Flagship Project financed by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research, and led by INAF, the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics. The primary goal of the ASTRI project is the realization of an end-to-end prototype of a Small Size Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array. The prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, is based on a completely new double mirror optics design and will be equipped with a camera made of a matrix of SiPM detectors. Here we describe the ASTRI SST-2M camera concept: basic idea, detectors, electronics, current status and some results coming from experiments in lab.
High speed readout electronics development for frequency-multiplexed kinetic inductance detector design optimization  [PDF]
O. Bourrion,C. Vescovi,A. Catalano,M. Calvo,A. D'Addabbo,J. Goupy,N. Boudou,J. F. Macias-Perez,A. Monfardini
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/8/12/C12006
Abstract: Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKID) are a promising solution for spaceborne mm-wave astronomy. To optimize their design and make them insensitive to the ballistic phonons created by cosmic-ray interactions in the substrate, the phonon propagation in silicon must be studied. A dedicated fast readout electronics, using channelized Digital Down Conversion for monitoring up to 12 MKIDs over a 100MHz bandwidth was developed. Thanks to the fast ADC sampling and steep digital filtering, In-phase and Quadrature samples, having a high dynamic range, are provided at ~2 Msps. This paper describes the technical solution chosen and the results obtained.
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