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The surface signature of the tidal dissipation of the core in a two-layer planet  [PDF]
F. Remus,S. Mathis,J. -P. Zahn,V. Lainey
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201424472
Abstract: Tidal dissipation, which is directly linked to internal structure, is one of the key physical mechanisms that drive systems evolution and govern their architecture. A robust evaluation of its amplitude is thus needed to predict evolution time for spins and orbits and their final states. The purpose of this paper is to refine recent model of the anelastic tidal dissipation in the central dense region of giant planets, commonly assumed to retain a large amount of heavy elements, which constitute an important source of dissipation. The previous paper evaluated the impact of the presence of the static fluid envelope on the tidal deformation of the core and on the associated anelastic tidal dissipation, through the tidal quality factor Qc. We examine here its impact on the corresponding effective anelastic tidal dissipation, through the effective tidal quality factor Qp. We show that the strength of this mechanism mainly depends on mass concentration. In the case of Jupiter- and Saturn-like planets, it can increase their effective tidal dissipation by, around, a factor 2.4 and 2 respectively. In particular, the range of the rheologies compatible with the observations is enlarged compared to the results issued from previous formulations. We derive here an improved expression of the tidal effective factor Qp in terms of the tidal dissipation factor of the core Qc, without assuming the commonly used assumptions. When applied to giant planets, the formulation obtained here allows a better match between the an elastic core's tidal dissipation of a two-layer model and the observations.
Tidal dissipation in stars and giant planets  [PDF]
Gordon I. Ogilvie
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1146/annurev-astro-081913-035941
Abstract: Astrophysical fluid bodies that orbit close to one another induce tidal distortions and flows that are subject to dissipative processes. The spin and orbital motions undergo a coupled evolution over astronomical timescales, which is relevant for many types of binary star, short-period extrasolar planetary systems and the satellites of the giant planets in the solar system. I review the principal mechanisms that have been discussed for tidal dissipation in stars and giant planets in both linear and nonlinear regimes. I also compare the expectations based on theoretical models with recent observational findings.
Unravelling tidal dissipation in gaseous giant planets  [PDF]
Mathieu Guenel,Stéphane Mathis,Fran?oise Remus
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201424010
Abstract: Tidal dissipation in planetary interiors is one of the key physical mechanisms that drive the evolution of star-planet and planet-moon systems. New constraints are now obtained both in the Solar and exoplanetary systems. Tidal dissipation in planets is intrinsically related to their internal structure. In particular, fluid and solid layers behave differently under tidal forcing. Therefore, their respective dissipation reservoirs have to be compared. In this letter, we compute separately the contributions of the potential dense rocky/icy core and the convective fluid envelope of gaseous giant planets, as a function of core size and mass. We then compare the associated dissipation reservoirs, by evaluating the frequency-average of the imaginary part of the Love numbers $k^2_2$ in each region. In the case of Jupiter and Saturn-like planets, we show that the viscoelastic dissipation in the core could dominate the turbulent friction acting on tidal inertial waves in the envelope. However, the fluid dissipation would not be negligible. This demonstrates that it is necessary to build complete models of tidal dissipation in planetary interiors from their deep interior to their surface without any arbitrary a-priori.
Melting the core of giant planets: impact on tidal dissipation  [PDF]
S. Mathis
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Giant planets are believed to host central dense rocky/icy cores that are key actors in the core-accretion scenario for their formation. In the same time, some of their components are unstable in the temperature and pressure regimes of central regions of giant planets and only ab-initio EOS computations can address the question of the state of matter. In this framework, several works demonstrated that erosion and redistribution of core materials in the envelope must be taken into account. These complex mechanisms thus may deeply modify giant planet interiors for which signatures of strong tidal dissipation have been obtained for Jupiter and Saturn. The best candidates to explain this dissipation are the viscoelastic dissipation in the central dense core and turbulent friction acting on tidal inertial waves in their fluid convective envelope. In this work, we study the consequences of the possible melting of central regions for the efficiency of each of these mechanisms.
Understanding tidal dissipation in gaseous giant planets from their core to their surface  [PDF]
M. Guenel,S. Mathis,F. Remus
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/201510106029
Abstract: Tidal dissipation in planetary interiors is one of the key physical mechanisms that drive the evolution of star-planet and planet-moon systems. Tidal dissipation in planets is intrinsically related to their internal structure. In particular, fluid and solid layers behave differently under tidal forcing. Therefore, their respective dissipation reservoirs have to be compared. In this work, we compute separately the contributions of the potential dense rocky/icy core and of the convective fluid envelope of gaseous giant planets, as a function of core size and mass. We demonstrate that in general both mechanisms must be taken into account.
Understanding tidal dissipation in gaseous giant planets : the respective contributions of their core and envelope  [PDF]
M. Guenel,S. Mathis,F. Remus
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: Tidal dissipation in planetary interiors is one of the key physical mechanisms that drive the evolution of star-planet and planet-moon systems. New constraints are now obtained both in the Solar and exoplanetary systems. Tidal dissipation in planets is intrinsically related to their internal structure. In particular, fluid and solid layers behave differently under tidal forcing. Therefore, their respective dissipation reservoirs have to be compared. In this work, we compute separately the contributions of the potential dense rocky/icy core and of the convective fluid envelope of gaseous giant planets, as a function of core size and mass. We then compare the associated dissipation reservoirs, by evaluating the frequency-average of the imaginary part of the Love numbers $k^2_2$ in each region. We demonstrate that in general both mechanisms must be taken into account.
Tidal dissipation and the formation of Kepler near-resonant planets  [PDF]
J. -B. Delisle,J. Laskar
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201424227
Abstract: Multi-planetary systems detected by the Kepler mission present an excess of planets close to first-order mean-motion resonances (2:1 and 3:2) but with a period ratio slightly higher than the resonant value. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this observation. Here we provide some clues that these near-resonant systems were initially in resonance and reached their current configuration through tidal dissipation. The argument that has been opposed to this scenario is that it only applies to the close-in systems and not to the farthest ones for which the tidal effect is too weak. Using the catalog of KOI of the Kepler mission, we show that the distributions of period ratio among the most close-in planetary systems and the farthest ones differ significantly. This distance dependent repartition is a strong argument in favor of the tidal dissipation scenario.
The anelastic equilibrium tide in exoplanetary systems  [PDF]
F. Remus,S. Mathis,J. -P. Zahn,V. Lainey
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: Earth-like planets have anelastic mantles, whereas giant planets may have anelastic cores. As for the fluid parts of a body, the tidal dissipation of such solid regions, gravitationally perturbed by a companion body, highly depends on its internal friction, and thus on its internal structure. Therefore, modelling this kind of interaction presents a high interest to provide constraints on planet interiors, whose properties are still quite uncertain. Here, we examine the equilibrium tide in the solid central region of a planet, taking into account the presence of a fluid envelope. We first present the equations governing the problem, and show how to obtain the different Love numbers that describe its deformation. We discuss how the quality factor Q depends on the rheological parameters, and the size of the core. Taking plausible values for the anelastic parameters, and examinig the frequency-dependence of the solid dissipation, we show how this mechanism may compete with the dissipation in fluid layers, when applied to Jupiter- and Saturn-like planets. We also discuss the case of the icy giants Uranus and Neptune.
Does the innermost occurrence distribution measure tidal dissipation, reveal a flow of giant planets, or both?  [PDF]
S. F. Taylor
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: The occurrence distribution of the shortest period giant exoplanets as found by Kepler show a drop-off that is a remarkable match to the drop-off expected by taking migration due to tides in the star. We present a comparison that can show the level of tidal dissipation (friction) as a function of the distribution of the ages of the star and planet system, with known dependencies on basic star and planet parameters. Use of this relation enables constraints to be put on the value of the tidal dissipation, constraints that will be improved as the distribution of the ages are determined. For the giant planets, this leads to an unexpectedly low value of tidal dissipation. This over-abundance of short period giant planets may be due to a continuing resupply of longer period giant planets migrating into a shorter period pileup, disrupting the presence of smaller planets along the way. Perhaps the occurrence distribution of close Neptune sized planets will better measure the tidal friction, while the distribution of Jupiter sized planets reveals that giant planets are more likely to complete a gradual migration into the star.
Viscoelastic Tidal Dissipation in Giant Planets and Formation of Hot Jupiters Through High-Eccentricity Migration  [PDF]
Natalia I Storch,Dong Lai
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt2292
Abstract: We study the possibility of tidal dissipation in the solid cores of giant planets and its implication for the formation of hot Jupiters through high-eccentricity migration. We present a general framework by which the tidal evolution of planetary systems can be computed for any form of tidal dissipation, characterized by the imaginary part of the complex tidal Love number, ${\rm Im}[{\tilde k}_2(\omega)]$, as a function of the forcing frequency $\omega$. Using the simplest viscoelastic dissipation model (the Maxwell model) for the rocky core and including the effect of a nondissipative fluid envelope, we show that with reasonable (but uncertain) physical parameters for the core (size, viscosity and shear modulus), tidal dissipation in the core can accommodate the tidal-Q constraint of the Solar system gas giants and at the same time allows exoplanetary hot Jupiters to form via tidal circularization in the high-e migration scenario. By contrast, the often-used weak friction theory of equilibrium tide would lead to a discrepancy between the Solar system constraint and the amount of dissipation necessary for high-e migration. We also show that tidal heating in the rocky core can lead to modest radius inflation of the planets, particularly when the planets are in the high-eccentricity phase ($e\sim 0.6$) during their high-e migration. Finally, as an interesting by-product of our study, we note that for a generic tidal response function ${\rm Im}[{\tilde k}_2(\omega)]$, it is possible that spin equilibrium (zero torque) can be achieved for multiple spin frequencies (at a given $e$), and the actual pseudo-synchronized spin rate depends on the evolutionary history of the system.
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