Abstract:
It seems to be a common understanding at present that, once event horizons are in thermal equilibrium, the entropy-area law holds inevitably. However no rigorous verification is given to such a very strong universality of the law in multi-horizon spacetimes. Then, based on thermodynamically consistent and rigorous discussion, this paper suggests an evidence of breakdown of entropy-area law for horizons in Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime, in which the temperatures of the horizons are different. The outline is as follows: We construct carefully "two thermal equilibrium systems" individually for black hole event horizon (BEH) and cosmological event horizon (CEH), for which the Euclidean action method is applicable. The integration constant (subtraction term) in Euclidean action is determined with referring to Schwarzschild and de Sitter canonical ensembles. The free energies of the two thermal systems are functions of three independent state variables, and we find a similarity of our two thermal systems with the magnetized gas in laboratory, which gives us a physical understanding of the necessity of three independent state variables. Then, via the thermodynamic consistency with three independent state variables, the breakdown of entropy-area law for CEH is suggested. The validity of the law for BEH can not be judged, but we clarify the key issue for BEH's entropy. Finally we make comments which may suggest the breakdown of entropy-area law for BEH, and also propose two discussions; one of them is on the quantum statistics of underlying quantum gravity, and another is on the SdS black hole evaporation from the point of view of non-equilibrium thermodynamics.

Abstract:
The previously developed algebraic lightfront holography is used in conjunction with the tensor splitting of the chiral theory on the causal horizon. In this way a universal area law for the entanglement entropy of the vacuum relative to the split (tensor factorized) vacuum is obtained. The universality of the area law is a result of the kinematical structure of the properly defined lightfront degrees of freedom. We consider this entropy associated with causal horizon of the wedge algebra in Minkowski spacetime as an analog of the quantum Bekenstein black hole entropy similar to the way in which the Unruh temperature for the wedge algebra may be viewed as an analog in Minkowski spacetime of the Hawking thermal behavior. My more recent preprint hep-th/0202085 presents other aspects of the same problem.

Abstract:
The mechanical first law (MFL) of black hole spacetimes is a geometrical relation which relates variations of mass parameter and horizon area. While it is well known that the MFL of asymptotic flat black hole is equivalent to its thermodynamical first law, however we do not know the detail of MFL of black hole spacetimes with cosmological constant which possess black hole and cosmological event horizons. Then this paper aims to formulate an MFL of the two-horizon spacetimes. For this purpose, we try to include the effects of two horizons in the MFL. To do so, we make use of the Iyer-Wald formalism and extend it to regard the mass parameter and the cosmological constant as two independent variables which make it possible to treat the two horizons on the same footing. Our extended Iyer-Wald formalism preserves the existence of conserved Noether current and its associated Noether charge, and gives the abstract form of MFL of black hole spacetimes with cosmological constant. Then, as a representative application of that formalism, we derive the MFL of Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) spacetime. Our MFL of SdS spacetime relates the variations of three quantities; the mass parameter, the total area of two horizons and the volume enclosed by two horizons. If our MFL is regarded as a thermodynamical first law of SdS spacetime, it offers a thermodynamically consistent description of SdS black hole evaporation process: The mass decreases while the volume and the entropy increase. In our suggestion, the generalized second law is not needed to ensure the second law of SdS thermodynamics for its evaporation process.

Abstract:
We explore the relationship between the first law of thermodynamics and gravitational field equation at a static, spherically symmetric black hole horizon in Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshtiz theory with/without detailed balance. It turns out that as in the cases of Einstein gravity and Lovelock gravity, the gravitational field equation can be cast to a form of the first law of thermodynamics at the black hole horizon. This way we obtain the expressions for entropy and mass in terms of black hole horizon, consistent with those from other approaches. We also define a generalized Misner-Sharp energy for static, spherically symmetric spacetimes in Ho\v{r}ava-Lifshtiz theory. The generalized Misner-Sharp energy is conserved in the case without matter field, and its variation gives the first law of black hole thermodynamics at black hole horizon.

Abstract:
We propose that in time dependent backgrounds the holographic principle should be replaced by the generalized second law of thermodynamics. For isotropic open and flat universes with a fixed equation of state, the generalized second law agrees with the cosmological holographic principle proposed by Fischler and Susskind. However, in more complicated spacetimes the two proposals disagree. A modified form of the holographic bound that applies to a post-inflationary universe follows from the generalized second law. However, in a spatially closed universe, or inside a black hole event horizon, there is no simple relationship that connects the area of a region to the maximum entropy it can contain.

Abstract:
Euclidean continuation of several Lorentzian spacetimes with horizons requires treating the Euclidean time coordinate to be periodic with some period $\beta$. Such spacetimes (Schwarzschild, deSitter,Rindler .....) allow a temperature $T=\beta^{-1}$ to be associated with the horizon. I construct a canonical ensemble of a subclass of such spacetimes with a fixed value for $\beta$ and evaluate the partition function $Z(\beta)$. For spherically symmetric spacetimes with a horizon at r=a, the partition function has the generic form $Z\propto \exp[S-\beta E]$, where $S= (1/4) 4\pi a^2$ and $|E|=(a/2)$. Both S and E are determined entirely by the properties of the metric near the horizon. This analysis reproduces the conventional result for the blackhole spacetimes and provides a simple and consistent interpretation of entropy and energy for deSitter spacetime. For the Rindler spacetime the entropy per unit transverse area turns out to be (1/4) while the energy is zero. The implications are discussed.

Abstract:
We discuss the structure of horizons in spacetimes with two metrics, with applications to the Vainshtein mechanism and other examples. We show, without using the field equations, that if the two metrics are static, spherically symmetric, nonsingular, and diagonal in a common coordinate system, then a Killing horizon for one must also be a Killing horizon for the other. We then generalize this result to the axisymmetric case. We also show that the surface gravities must agree if the bifurcation surface in one spacetime lies smoothly in the interior of the spacetime of the other metric. These results imply for example that the Vainshtein mechanism of nonlinear massive gravity theories cannot work to recover black holes if the dynamical metric and the non dynamical flat metric are both diagonal. They also explain the global structure of some known solutions of bigravity theories with one diagonal and one nondiagonal metric, in which the bifurcation surface of the Killing field lies in the interior of one spacetime and on the conformal boundary of the other.

Abstract:
The possibility that the asymptotic quasi-normal mode (QNM) frequencies can be used to obtain the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for the Schwarzschild black hole -- commonly referred to as Hod's conjecture -- has received considerable attention. To test this conjecture, using monodromy technique, attempts have been made to analytically compute the asymptotic frequencies for a large class of black hole spacetimes. In an earlier work, two of the current authors computed the high frequency QNMs for scalar perturbations of $(D+2)$ dimensional spherically symmetric, asymptotically flat, single horizon spacetimes with generic power-law singularities. In this work, we extend these results to asymptotically non-flat spacetimes. Unlike the earlier analyses, we treat asymptotically flat and de Sitter spacetimes in a unified manner, while the asymptotic anti-de Sitter spacetimes is considered separately. We obtain master equations for the asymptotic QNM frequency for all the three cases. We show that for all the three cases, the real part of the asymptotic QNM frequency -- in general -- is not proportional to ln(3) thus indicating that the Hod's conjecture may be restrictive.

Abstract:
We consider a cosmological horizon, named thermo-horizon, to which are associated a temperature and an entropy of Bekenstein-Hawking and which obeys the first law for an energy flow calculated through the corresponding limit surface. We point out a contradiction between the first law and the definition of the total energy contained inside the horizon. This contradiction is removed when the first law is replaced by a Gibbs' equation for a vacuum-like component associated to the event horizon.

Abstract:
We investigate the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe (containing dark energy) as a non-equilibrium (irreversible) thermodynamical system by considering the power-law correction to the horizon entropy. By taking power-law entropy area law which appear in dealing with the entanglement of quantum fields in and out the horizon, we determine the power-law entropy corrected apparent horizon of the FRW universe.