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Where do the Progenitors of Millisecond Pulsars come from?  [PDF]
Ali Taani,Chengmin Zhang,Mashhoor Al-Wardat,Yongheng Zhao
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1002/asna.201111611
Abstract: Observations of a large population of Millisecond Pulsars (MSPs) show a wide divergence in the orbital periods (from approximately hours to a few months). In the standard view, Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries (LMXBs) are considered as progenitors for some MSPs during the recycling process. We present a systematic study that combines different types of compact objects in binaries such as Cataclysmic Variables (CVs), LMXBs and MSPs. We plot them together in the so called Corbet diagram. Larger and different samples are needed to better constrain the result as a function of the environment and formations. A scale diagram showing the distribution of MSPs for different orbital periods and the aspects for their progenitors relying on Accretion Induced Collapse (AIC) of white dwarfs in binaries. Thus massive CVs (M >1.1M\odot) can play a vital role on binary evolution, as well as of the physical processes involved in the formation and evolution of neutron stars and their magnetic fields, and could turn into binary MSPs with different scales of orbital periods; this effect can be explained by the AIC process. This scenario also suggests that some fraction of isolated MSPs in the Galactic disk could be formed through the same channel, formingthe contribution of some CVs to the single-degenerate progenitors of Type Ia supernova. Furthermore, we have refined the statistical distribution and evolution by using updated data. This implies that the significant studies of compact objects in binary systems can benefit from the Corbet diagram.
Search for pulsations at high radio frequencies from accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars in quiescence  [PDF]
M. N. Iacolina,M. Burgay,L. Burderi,A. Possenti,T. Di Salvo
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201014025
Abstract: It is commonly believed that millisecond radio pulsars have been spun up by transfer of matter and angular momentum from a low-mass companion during an X-ray active mass transfer phase. A subclass of low-mass X-ray binaries is that of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars, transient systems that show periods of X-ray quiescence during which radio emission could switch on. The aim of this work is to search for millisecond pulsations from three accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars, XTE J1751-305, XTE J1814-338, and SAX J1808.4-3658, observed during their quiescent X-ray phases at high radio frequencies (5 - 8 GHz) in order to overcome the problem of the free-free absorption due to the matter engulfing the system. A positive result would provide definite proof of the recycling model, providing the direct link between the progenitors and their evolutionary products. The data analysis methodology has been chosen on the basis of the precise knowledge of orbital and spin parameters from X-ray observations. It is subdivided in three steps: we corrected the time series for the effects of (I) the dispersion due to interstellar medium and (II) of the orbital motions, and finally (III) folded modulo the spin period to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. No radio signal with spin and orbital characteristics matching those of the X-ray sources has been found in our search, down to very low flux density upper limits. We analysed several mechanisms that could have prevented the detection of the signal, concluding that the low luminosity of the sources and the geometric factor are the most likely reasons for this negative result.
Evolutionary tracks of millisecond pulsars with low-mass companions  [PDF]
Filip Ficek,Mieszko Rutkowski,W?odek Klu?niak
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We consider the evolution of millisecond radio pulsars in binary systems with a main-sequence or evolved stellar companion. Evolution of non-accreting binary systems with "eclipsing" milisecond pulsars was described by Klu\'zniak, Czerny & Ray (1992) who predicted that systems like the one containing the Terzan 5 PSR 1744-24A will in the future become accreting low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), while PSR 1957+20 may evaporate its companion. The model presented in the current paper gives similar results for these two objects and allows to obtain diverse evolutionary tracks of millisecond pulsars with low mass companions (black widows). Our results suggest that the properties of many black widow systems can be explained by an ablation phase lasting a few hundred million years. Some of these sources may regain Roche lobe contact in a comparable time, and become LMXBs.
Temporal variations in space-time and progenitors of gamma ray burst and millisecond pulsars  [PDF]
Preston Jones
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1142/S0218271807011164
Abstract: A time varying space-time metric is shown to be a source of electromagnetic radiation. The post-Newtonian approximation is used as a realistic model of the connection between the space-time metric and a time varying gravitational potential. Large temporal variations in the metric from the coalescence of colliding black holes and neutron stars are shown to be possible progenitors of gamma ray burst and millisecond pulsars.
X-ray and Gamma-ray Emissions from Different Evolutionary Stage of Rotation Powered Millisecond Pulsars  [PDF]
J. Takata,K. S. Cheng,R. E. Taam
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/745/1/100
Abstract: The $Fermi$-LAT has revealed that rotation powered millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are a major contributor to the Galactic $\gamma$-ray source population. Such pulsars may also be important in modeling the quiescent state of several low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), where optical observations of the companion star suggest the possible existence of rotation powered MSPs. To understand the observational properties of the different evolutionary stages of MSPs, the X-ray and $\gamma$-ray emission associated with the outer gap model is investigated. For rotation powered MSPs, the size of the outer gap and the properties of the high-energy emission are controlled by either the photon-photon pair-creation process or magnetic pair-creation process near the surface. For these pulsars, we find that the outer gap model controlled by the magnetic pair-creation process is preferable in explaining the possible correlations between the $\gamma$-ray luminosity or non-thermal X-ray luminosity versus the spin down power. For the accreting MSPs in quiescent LMXBs, the thermal X-ray emission at the neutron star surface resulting from deep crustal heating can control the conditions in the outer gap. We argue that the optical modulation observed in the quiescent state of several LMXBs originates from the irradiation of the donor star by $\gamma$-rays from the outer gap. In these systems, the irradiation luminosity required for the optical modulation of the source such as SAX J1808.4-3658 can be achieved for a neutron star of high mass. Finally, we discuss the high-energy emission associated with an intra-binary shock in black widow systems, e.g. PSR B1957+20.
Can eccentric binary millisecond pulsars form by accretion induced collapse of white dwarfs?  [PDF]
Wen-Cong Chen,Xi-Wei Liu,Ren-Xin Xu,Xiang-Dong Li
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17512.x
Abstract: Binary radio pulsars are generally believed to have been spun up to millisecond periods (i.e. recycling) via mass accretion from their donor stars, and they are the descendants of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries. However, some studies indicate that the formation of pulsars from the accretion-induced collapse (AIC) of accreting white dwarfs (WDs) cannot be excluded. In this work, we use a population synthesis code to examine if the AIC channel can produce eccentric binary millisecond pulsars (BMSPs) in the Galaxy. Our simulated results indicate that, only when the natal MSPs receive a relatively strong kick ($\ga100\rm km\,s^{-1}$), can the AIC channel produce $\sim 10-180$ eccentric ($e>0.1$) BMSPs in the Galaxy, most of which are accompanied by a Helium star. Such a kick seems to be highly unlikely in the conventional AIC process, hence the probability of forming eccentric BMSPs via the AIC channel can be ruled out. Even if a high kick is allowed, the AIC channel cannot produce eccentric BMSPs with an orbital period of $\ga 20$ days. Therefore, we propose that the peculiar BMSP PSR J1903+0327 cannot be formed by the AIC channel. However, the AIC evolutionary channel may produce some fraction of isolated millisecond pulsars, and even sub-millisecond pulsars if they really exist.
Do all millisecond pulsars share a common heritage?  [PDF]
Bulent Kiziltan,Stephen. E. Thorsett
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1063/1.3507201
Abstract: The discovery of millisecond pulsations from neutron stars in low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) systems has substantiated the theoretical prediction that links millisecond radio pulsars (MSRPs) and LMXBs. Since then, the process that produces millisecond radio pulsars from LMXBs, followed by spin-down due to dipole radiation has been conceived as the 'standard evolution' of millisecond pulsars. However, the question whether all the observed millisecond radio pulsars could be produced by LMXBs has not been quantitatively addressed until now. The standard evolutionary process produces millisecond pulsars with periods (P) and spin-down rates (Pdot) that are not entirely independent. The possible P-Pdot values that millisecond radio pulsars can attain are jointly constrained. In order to test whether the observed millisecond radio pulsars are the unequivocal descendants of millisecond X-ray pulsars (MSXP), we have produced a probability map that represents the expected distribution of millisecond radio pulsars for the standard model. We show with more than 95 % confidence that the fastest spinning millisecond radio pulsars with high magnetic fields, e.g. PSR B1937+21, cannot be produced by the observed millisecond X-ray pulsars within the framework of the standard model.
Cosmic recycling of millisecond pulsars  [PDF]
Wynn C. G. Ho,Thomas J. Maccarone,Nils Andersson
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/730/2/L36
Abstract: We compare the rotation rate of neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) with the orbital period of the binaries. We find that, while short orbital period LMXBs span a range of neutron star rotation rates, all the long period LMXBs have fast rotators. We also find that the rotation rates are highest for the systems with the highest mean mass accretion rates, as can be expected if the accretion rate correlates with the orbital period. We show that these properties can be understood by a balance between spin-up due to accretion and spin-down due to gravitational radiation. Our scenario indicates that the gravitational radiation emitted by these systems may be detectable by future ground-based gravitational wave detectors.
Spin frequency distributions of binary millisecond pulsars  [PDF]
A. Papitto,D. F. Torres,N. Rea,T. Tauris
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201321724
Abstract: Rotation-powered millisecond radio pulsars have been spun up to their present spin period by a $10^8$ - $10^9$ yr long X-ray-bright phase of accretion of matter and angular momentum in a low-to-intermediate mass binary system. Recently, the discovery of transitional pulsars that alternate cyclically between accretion and rotation-powered states on time scales of a few years or shorter, has demonstrated this evolutionary scenario. Here, we present a thorough statistical analysis of the spin distributions of the various classes of millisecond pulsars to assess the evolution of their spin period between the different stages. Accreting sources that showed oscillations exclusively during thermonuclear type I X-ray bursts (nuclear-powered millisecond pulsars) are found to be significantly faster than rotation-powered sources, while accreting sources that possess a magnetosphere and show coherent pulsations (accreting millisecond pulsars) are not. On the other hand, if accreting millisecond pulsars and eclipsing rotation-powered millisecond pulsars form a common class of transitional pulsars, these are shown to have a spin distribution intermediate between the faster nuclear-powered millisecond pulsars and the slower non-eclipsing rotation-powered millisecond pulsars. We interpret these findings in terms of a spin-down due to the decreasing mass-accretion rate during the latest stages of the accretion phase, and in terms of the different orbital evolutionary channels mapped by the various classes of pulsars. We summarize possible instrumental selection effects, showing that even if an unbiased sample of pulsars is still lacking, their influence on the results of the presented analysis is reduced by recent improvements in instrumentation and searching techniques.
Growth of magnetic fields in accreting millisecond pulsars  [PDF]
Carmine Cuofano,Alessandro Drago,Giuseppe Pagliara
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sts134
Abstract: R-modes can generate strong magnetic fields in the core of accreting millisecond neutron stars (NSs). The diffusion of these fields outside the core causes the growth of the external magnetic field and thus it affects the evolution of the spin down rates $\dot{P}$ of the millisecond pulsars (MSPs). The diffusion of the internal magnetic field provides a new evolutionary path for the MSPs. This scenario could explain the large $\dot{P}$ of the pulsars J1823-3021A and J1824-2452A.
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