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Engineering chromium related single photon emitters in single crystal diamond  [PDF]
I Aharonovich,S Castelletto,B C Johnson,J C McCallum,S Prawer
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/13/4/045015
Abstract: Color centers in diamond as single photon emitters, are leading candidates for future quantum devices due to their room temperature operation and photostability. The recently discovered chromium related centers are particularly attractive since they possess narrow bandwidth emission and a very short lifetime. In this paper we investigate the fabrication methodologies to engineer these centers in monolithic diamond. We show that the emitters can be successfully fabricated by ion implantation of chromium in conjunction with oxygen or sulfur. Furthermore, our results indicate that the background nitrogen concentration is an important parameter, which governs the probability of success to generate these centers.
Chromium single photon emitters in diamond fabricated by ion implantation  [PDF]
Igor Aharonovich,Stefania Castelletto,Brett C. Johnson,Jeffrey C. McCallum,David A. Simpson,Andrew D. Greentree,Steven Prawer
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.81.121201
Abstract: Controlled fabrication and identification of bright single photon emitters is at the heart of quantum optics and materials science. Here we demonstrate a controlled engineering of a chromium bright single photon source in bulk diamond by ion implantation. The Cr center has fully polarized emission with a ZPL centered at 749 nm, FWHM of 4 nm, an extremely short lifetime of ~1 ns, and a count rate of 500 kcounts/s. By combining the polarization measurements and the vibronic spectra, a model of the center has been proposed consisting of one interstitial chromium atom with a transition dipole along one of the <100> directions.
Spontaneous emission and collection efficiency enhancement of single emitters in diamond via plasmonic cavities and gratings  [PDF]
Jennifer T. Choy,Irfan Bulu,Birgit J. M. Hausmann,Erika Janitz,I-Chun Huang,Marko Lon?ar
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1063/1.4817397
Abstract: We demonstrate an approach, based on plasmonic apertures and gratings, to enhance the radiative decay rate of single NV centers in diamond, while simultaneously improving their collection efficiency. Our structures are based on metallic resonators formed by surrounding sub-wavelength diamond nanoposts with a silver film, which can enhance the spontaneous emission rate of an embedded NV center. However, the collection efficiency of emitted photons remains low due to losses to surface plasmons and reflections at the diamond-air interface. In this work, we mitigate photon losses into these channels by incorporating grating structures into the plasmonic cavity system.
Photophysics of novel diamond based single photon emitters  [PDF]
I. Aharonovich,S. Castelletto,D. A. Simpson,A. D. Greentree,S. Prawer
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.043813
Abstract: A detailed study of the photophysical properties of several novel color centers in chemical vapor deposition diamond is presented. These emitters show narrow luminescence lines in the near infra-red. Single photon emission was verified with continuous and pulsed excitation with emission rates at saturation in the MHz regime, whilst direct lifetime measurements reveal excited state lifetimes ranging from 1-14 ns. In addition, a number of quantum emitters demonstrate two level behavior with no bunching present in the second order correlation function. An improved method of evaluating the quantum efficiency through the direct measurement of the collection efficiency from two level emitters is presented and discussed. \
Study of narrowband single photon emitters in polycrystalline diamond films  [PDF]
Russell G. Sandstrom,Olga Shimoni,Aiden A. Martin,Igor Aharonovich
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1063/1.4901083
Abstract: Quantum information processing and integrated nanophotonics require robust generation of single photon emitters on demand. In this work we demonstrate that diamond films grown by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition on a silicon substrate host bright, narrowband single photon emitters in the visible to near infrared spectral range. The emitters possess fast lifetime, absolute photostability, and exhibit full polarization at excitation and emission. Pulsed and continuous laser excitations confirm their quantum behaviour at room temperature, while low temperature spectroscopy is done to investigate their inhomogeneous broadening. Our results advance the knowledge of solid state single photon sources and open pathways for their practical implementation in quantum communication and quantum information processing.
Nanoscale fluorescence lifetime imaging with a single diamond NV center  [PDF]
Ryan Beams,Dallas Smith,Timothy W. Johnson,Sang-Hyun Oh,Lukas Novotny,Nick Vamivakas
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1021/nl401791v
Abstract: Solid-state quantum emitters, such as artificially engineered quantum dots or naturally occurring defects in solids, are being investigated for applications ranging from quantum information science and optoelectronics to biomedical imaging. Recently, these same systems have also been studied from the perspective of nanoscale metrology. In this letter we study the near-field optical properties of a diamond nanocrystal hosting a single nitrogen vacancy center. We find that the nitrogen vacancy center is a sensitive probe of the surrounding electromagnetic mode structure. We exploit this sensitivity to demonstrate nanoscale fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) with a single nitrogen vacancy center by imaging the local density of states of an optical antenna.
Phonon-induced dephasing of chromium colour centres in diamond  [PDF]
Tina Muller,Igor Aharonovich,Zhe Wang,Xin Yuan,Stefania Castelletto,Steven Prawer,Mete Atature
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.195210
Abstract: We report on the coherence properties of single photons from chromium-based colour centres in diamond. We use field-correlation and spectral lineshape measurements to reveal the interplay between slow spectral wandering and fast dephasing mechanisms as a function of temperature. We show that the zero-phonon transition frequency and its linewidth follow a power-law dependence on temperature indicating that the dominant fast dephasing mechanisms for these centres are direct electron-phonon coupling and phonon-modulated Coulomb coupling to nearby impurities. Further, the observed reduction in the quantum yield for photon emission as a function of temperature is consistent with the opening of additional nonradiative channels through thermal activation to higher energy states predominantly and indicates a near-unity quantum efficiency at 4 K.
Radiation efficiency of narrowband coherent thermal emitters
Anand S. Gawarikar,Ryan P. Shea,Joseph J. Talghader
AIP Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.1063/1.4739274
Abstract: The far field radiation efficiency achievable in narrowband thermal emitters is investigated, taking into account the full spatial and spectral variation of the emissivity. A coupled Fabry-Perot cavity model is used to develop an insight into the efficiency variation with cavity coherence and device temperature. It is found that the spatial variation of emissivity has to be explicitly included in the radiation power calculations to accurately estimate the achievable power efficiencies. The calculated radiation efficiencies of an ideal coherent cavity coupled emitter were found to vary from 0.1% to 9%, with a corresponding increase in the emission linewidth from 6.3 nm to 930 nm, and were much lower than that estimated without accounting for effects of spatial coherence. The analysis presented here can be used to determine the optimal operating temperature of a coherent thermal emitter once its emission characteristics and conduction losses are known and it is demonstrated that this optimum temperature is different from the temperature of peak blackbody emission at the resonant absorption wavelength.
Coherent optical emitters in diamond nanostructures via ion implantation  [PDF]
Ruffin E. Evans,Alp Sipahigil,Denis D. Sukachev,Alexander S. Zibrov,Mikhail D. Lukin
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The negatively-charged silicon-vacancy ($\mathrm{SiV}^{-}$) center in diamond is a bright source of indistinguishable single photons and a useful resource in quantum information protocols. Until now, $\mathrm{SiV}^{-}$ centers with narrow optical linewidths and small inhomogeneous distributions of $\mathrm{SiV}^{-}$ transition frequencies have only been reported in samples doped with silicon during diamond growth. We present a technique for producing implanted $\mathrm{SiV}^{-}$ centers with nearly lifetime-limited optical linewidths and a small inhomogeneous distribution. These properties persist after nanofabrication, paving the way for incorporation of high-quality $\mathrm{SiV}^{-}$ centers into nanophotonic devices.
Multiple intrinsically identical single photon emitters in the solid-state  [PDF]
Lachlan J. Rogers,Kay D. Jahnke,T. Teraji,Luca Marseglia,Christoph. Müller,Boris Naydenov,Hardy Schauffert,C. Kranz,Junichi Isoya,Liam P. McGuinness,Fedor Jelezko
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5739
Abstract: Emitters of indistinguishable single photons are crucial for the growing field of quantum technologies. To realize scalability and increase the complexity of quantum optics technologies, multiple independent yet identical single photon emitters are also required. However typical solid-state single photon sources are inherently dissimilar, necessitating the use of electrical feedback or optical cavities to improve spectral overlap between distinct emitters. Here, we demonstrate bright silicon-vacancy (SiV-) centres in low-strain bulk diamond which intrinsically show spectral overlap of up to 91% and near transform-limited excitation linewidths. Our results have impact upon the application of single photon sources for quantum optics and cryptography, and the production of next generation fluorophores for bio-imaging.
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