Abstract:
Exact ground states of interacting electrons on the diamond Hubbard chain in a magnetic field are constructed which exhibit a wide range of properties such as flat-band ferromagnetism and correlation induced metallic, half-metallic or insulating behavior. The properties of these ground states can be tuned by changing the magnetic flux, local potentials, or electron density.

Abstract:
The geometric frustration in a class of the mixed spin-1/2 and spin-S Ising-Heisenberg diamond chains is investigated by combining three exact analytical techniques: Kambe projection method, decoration-iteration transformation and transfer-matrix method. The ground state, the magnetization process and the specific heat as a function of the external magnetic field are particularly examined for different strengths of the geometric frustration. It is shown that the increase of the Heisenberg spin value S raises the number of intermediate magnetization plateaux, which emerge in magnetization curves provided that the ground state is highly degenerate on behalf of a sufficiently strong geometric frustration. On the other hand, all intermediate magnetization plateaux merge into a linear magnetization versus magnetic field dependence in the limit of classical Heisenberg spin S → ∞. The enhanced magnetocaloric effect with cooling rate exceeding the one of paramagnetic salts is also detected when the disordered frustrated phase constitutes the ground state and the external magnetic field is small enough.

Abstract:
The geometric frustration in a class of the mixed spin-1/2 and spin-S Ising-Heisenberg diamond chains is investigated by combining three exact analytical techniques: Kambe projection method, decoration-iteration transformation and transfer-matrix method. The ground state, the magnetization process and the specific heat as a function of the external magnetic field are particularly examined for different strengths of the geometric frustration. It is shown that the increase of the Heisenberg spin value S raises the number of intermediate magnetization plateaux, which emerge in magnetization curves provided that the ground state is highly degenerate on behalf of a sufficiently strong geometric frustration. On the other hand, all intermediate magnetization plateaux merge into a linear magnetization versus magnetic field dependence in the limit of classical Heisenberg spin S -> infinity. The enhanced magnetocaloric effect with cooling rate exceeding the one of paramagnetic salts is also detected when the disordered frustrated phase constitutes the ground state and the external magnetic field is small enough.

Abstract:
The ground state and magnetization process of the mixed spin-(1,1/2) Ising diamond chain is exactly solved by employing the generalized decoration-iteration mapping transformation and the transfer-matrix method. The decoration-iteration transformation is first used in order to establish a rigorous mapping equivalence with the corresponding spin-1 Blume-Emery-Griffiths chain in a non-zero magnetic field, which is subsequently exactly treated within the framework of the transfer-matrix technique. It is shown that the ground-state phase diagram includes just four different ground states and the low-temperature magnetization curve may exhibit an intermediate plateau precisely at one half of the saturation magnetization. Our rigorous results disprove recent Monte Carlo simulations of Zihua Xin et al. [Z. Xin, S. Chen, C. Zhang, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 324 (2012) 3704], which imply an existence of the other magnetization plateaus at 0.283 and 0.426 of the saturation magnetization.

Abstract:
The ground-state phases of anisotropic mixed diamond chains with spins 1 and 1/2 are investigated. Both single-site and exchange anisotropies are considered. We find the phases consisting of an array of uncorrelated spin-1 clusters separated by singlet dimers. Except in the simplest case where the cluster consists of a single $S=1$ spin, this type of ground state breaks the translational symmetry spontaneously. Although the mechanism leading to this type of ground state is the same as that in the isotropic case, it is nonmagnetic or paramagnetic depending on the competition between two types of anisotropy. We also find the N\'eel, period-doubled N\'eel, Haldane, and large-$D$ phases, where the ground state is a single spin cluster of infinite size equivalent to the spin-1 Heisenberg chain with alternating anisotropies. The ground-state phase diagrams are determined for typical sets of parameters by numerical analysis. In various limiting cases, the ground-state phase diagrams are determined analytically. The low-temperature behaviors of magnetic susceptibility and entropy are investigated to distinguish each phase by observable quantities. The relationship of the present model with the anisotropic rung-alternating ladder with spin-1/2 is also discussed.

Abstract:
An exactly solvable variant of mixed spin-(1/2,1) Ising-Heisenberg diamond chain is considered. Vertical spin-1 dimers are taken as quantum ones with Heisenberg bilinear and biquadratic interactions and with single-ion anisotropy, while all interactions between spin-1 and spin-1/2 residing on the intermediate sites are taken in the Ising form. The detailed analysis of the $T=0$ ground state phase diagram is presented. The phase diagrams have shown to be rather rich, demonstrating large variety of ground states: saturated one, three ferrimagnetic with magnetization equal to 3/5 and another four ferrimagnetic ground states with magnetization equal to 1/5. There are also two frustrated macroscopically degenerated ground states which could exist at zero magnetic filed. Solving the model exactly within classical transfer-matrix formalism we obtain an exact expressions for all thermodynamic function of the system. The thermodynamic properties of the model have been described exactly by exact calculation of partition function within the direct classical transfer-matrix formalism, the entries of transfer matrix, in their turn, contain the information about quantum states of vertical spin-1 XXZ dimer (eigenvalues of local hamiltonian for vertical link).

Abstract:
We construct exact ground states of interacting electrons on triangle and diamond Hubbard chains. The construction requires (i) a rewriting of the Hamiltonian into positive semidefinite form, (ii) the construction of a many-electron ground state of this Hamiltonian, and (iii) the proof of the uniqueness of the ground state. This approach works in any dimension, requires no integrability of the model, and only demands sufficiently many microscopic parameters in the Hamiltonian which have to fulfill certain relations. The scheme is first employed to construct exact ground state for the diamond Hubbard chain in a magnetic field. These ground states are found to exhibit a wide range of properties such as flat-band ferromagnetism and correlation induced metallic, half-metallic or insulating behavior, which can be tuned by changing the magnetic flux, local potentials, or electron density. Detailed proofs of the uniqueness of the ground states are presented. By the same technique exact ground states are constructed for triangle Hubbard chains and a one-dimensional periodic Anderson model with nearest-neighbor hybridization. They permit direct comparison with results obtained by variational techniques for f-electron ferromagnetism due to a flat band in CeRh3B2.

Abstract:
Magnetization process of the mixed spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 Ising-Heisenberg diamond chain is examined by combining three exact analytical techniques: Kambe projection method, decoration-iteration transformation and transfer-matrix method. Multiple frustration-induced plateaus in a magnetization process of this geometrically frustrated system are found provided that a relative ratio between the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg- and Ising-type interactions exceeds some particular value. By contrast, there is just a single magnetization plateau if the frustrating Heisenberg interaction is sufficiently small compared to the Ising one.

Abstract:
We investigate the ground state properties of an S=1/2 distorted diamond chain described by the Hamiltonian ${\cal H}=J_1\sum_\ell\bigl\{\bigl(\vecS_{3\ell-1}\cdot\vecS_{3\ell} +\vecS_{3\ell}\cdot\vecS_{3\ell+1}\bigr)+J_2\vecS_{3\ell-2}\cdot\vecS_{3\ell-1} +J_3\bigl(\vecS_{3\ell-2}\cdot\vecS_{3\ell}+\vecS_{3\ell}\cdot\vecS_{3\ ell+2}\bigr)-H S_{\ell}^z\bigr\}$ ($J_1,~J_2,~J_3\geq0$), which models well a trimerized S=1/2 spin chain system Cu$_3$Cl$_6$(H$_2$O)$_2$$\cdot$2H$_8$C$_4$SO$_2$. Using an exact diagonalization method by means of the Lancz\"os technique, we determine the ground state phase diagram in the H=0 case, composed of the dimerized, spin fluid, and ferrimagnetic phases. Performing a degenerate perturbation calculation, we analyze the phase boundary line between the latter two phases in the $J_2,~J_3\llJ_1$ limit, the result of which is in good agreement with the numerical result. We calculate, by the use of the density matrix renormalization group method, the ground state magnetization curve for the case (a) where $J_1=1.0$, $J_2=0.8$, and $J_3=0.5$, and the case (b) where $J_1=1.0$, $J_2=0.8$, and $J_3=0.3$. We find that in the case (b) the 2/3-plateau appears in addition to the 1/3-plateau which also appears in the case (a). The translational symmetry of the Hamiltonian $\cal H$ is spontaneously broken in the 2/3-plateau state as well as in the dimerized state.

Abstract:
Thermal entanglement, magnetic and quadrupole moments properties of the mixed spin-1/2 and spin-1 Ising-Heisenberg model on a diamond chain are considered. Magnetization and quadrupole moment plateaus are observed for the antiferromagnetic couplings. Thermal negativity as a measure of quantum entanglement of the mixed spin system is calculated. Different behavior for the negativity is obtained for the various values of Heisenberg dipolar and quadrupole couplings. The intermediate plateau of the negativity has been observed at absence of the single-ion anisotropy and quadrupole interaction term. When dipolar and quadrupole couplings are equal there is a similar behavior of negativity and quadrupole moment.