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Hot Stars in Globular Clusters  [PDF]
S. Moehler
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: Blue horizontal branch and UV bright stars in several globular clusters are analysed spectroscopically and the results are compared with predictions of stellar evolutionary theory. We find that the distribution of temperatures and surface gravities of the blue HB stars may be explained by the effects of deep mixing. The masses derived for these stars are too low unless one uses the long distance scale for globular clusters. First results on blue HB stars in metal rich clusters are presented. Analyses of hot UV bright stars in globular clusters uncovered a lack of genuine post-asymptotic giant branch stars which may explain the lack of planetary nebulae in globular clusters seen by Jacoby et al. (1997). Abundance analyses of post-AGB stars in two globular clusters suggest that gas and dust may separate during the AGB phase.
Hot Stars in Globular Cluster - A Spectroscopist's View  [PDF]
S. Moehler
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/323297
Abstract: Globular clusters are ideal laboratories to study the evolution of low-mass stars. In this work we concentrate on three types of hot stars observed in globular clusters: horizontal branch stars, UV bright stars, and white dwarfs. After providing some historical background and information on gaps and blue tails we discuss extensively hot horizontal branch stars in metal-poor globular clusters, esp. their abundance anomalies and the consequences for the determination of their atmospheric parameters and evolutionary status. Hot horizontal branch stars in metal-rich globular clusters are found to form a small, but rather inhomogeneous group that cannot be explained by one evolutionary scenario. Hot UV bright stars show a lack of classic post-AGB stars that may explain the lack of planetary nebulae in globular clusters. Finally we discuss first results of spectroscopic observations of white dwarfs in globular clusters.
Hot UV bright stars in globular clusters  [PDF]
S. Moehler,W. Landsman,R. Napiwotzki
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: We have obtained medium-resolution spectra of seven UV-bright stars discovered on images of four southern globular clusters obtained with the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT). Effective temperatures, surface gravities and helium abundances are derived from LTE and non-LTE model atmosphere fits. Three of the stars have sdO spectra, including M4-Y453 (Teff = 58800 K, log g = 5.15), NGC 6723-III60 (Teff = 40600 K, log g = 4.46) and NGC 6752-B2004 (Teff = 37000 K, log g = 5.25). All seven stars lie along either post-extended horizontal branch (EHB) or post-early AGB evolutionary tracks. The post-early AGB stars show solar helium abundances, while the post-EHB stars are helium deficient, similar to their EHB progenitors.
Blue horizontal branch stars in metal-rich globular clusters. II. 47 Tuc and NGC 362  [PDF]
S. Moehler,W. B. Landsman,B. Dorman
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: Atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity) and radial velocities are derived for 12 candidate blue horizontal branch (HB) stars in the globular clusters 47 Tuc and NGC 362, which so far have been known to contain primarily red HB stars. The spectroscopic targets were selected from the catalog of hot stars detected in these clusters at 1600 A using the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT). Spectroscopic analyses of these stars reveal, however, that one of the four HB candidate targets in 47 Tuc, and five out of the eight targets in NGC 362 are probably background stars belonging to the Small Magellanic Cloud. With the exception of the photometric binary MJ38529 in 47 Tuc, the parameters of those stars that are probable members of 47 Tuc and NGC 362 agree well with canonical HB evolution. The three hot stars in 47 Tuc all have 10,000 K < Teff < 15,000 K and include one photometric binary, which suggests that they might have a different physical origin than the dominant red HB population. The somewhat cooler blue HB stars in NGC 362 show more continuity with the dominant red HB population and might simply arise from red giants with unusually high mass loss.
Rotation of Hot Horizontal Branch Stars in Galactic Globular Clusters  [PDF]
A. Recio-Blanco,G. Piotto,A. Aparicio,A. Renzini
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: We present high resolution UVES+VLT spectroscopic observations of 61 stars in the extended blue horizontal branches of the Galactic globular clusters NGC 1904 (M79), NGC 2808, NGC 6093 (M80), and NGC 7078 M15). Our data reveal for the first time the presence in NGC 1904 of a sizable population of fast (v sin(i) >= 20 km/s) horizontal branch (HB) rotators, confined to the cool end of the EHB, similar to that found in M13. We also confirm the fast rotators already observed in NGC 7078. The cooler stars (T_eff < 11,500 K) in these three clusters show a range of rotation rates, with a group of stars rotating at ~ 15 km/s or less, and a fast rotating group at ~ 30 km/s. Apparently, the fast rotators are relatively more abundant in NGC 1904 and M13, than in NGC 7078. No fast rotators have been identified in NGC 2808 and NGC 6093. All the stars hotter than T_eff ~ 11,500 K have projected rotational velocities vsini< 12 km/s. The connection between photometric gaps in the HB and the change in the projected rotational velocities is not confirmed by the new data. However, our data are consistent with a relation between this discontinuity and the HB jump.
Hot HB stars in globular clusters - Physical parameters and consequences for theory. V. Radiative levitation versus helium mixing  [PDF]
S. Moehler,A. V. Sweigart,W. B. Landsman,U. Heber
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: Atmospheric parameters (effective temperature Teff, surface gravity log g), masses and helium abundances are derived for 42 hot horizontal branch (HB) stars in the globular cluster NGC 6752. For 19 stars we derive magnesium and iron abundances as well and find that iron is enriched by a factor of 50 on average with respect to the cluster abundance whereas the magnesium abundances are consistent with the cluster abundance. Radiation pressure may levitate heavy elements like iron to the surface of the star in a diffusive process. Taking into account the enrichment of heavy elements in our spectroscopic analyses we find that high iron abundances can explain part, but not all, of the problem of anomalously low gravities along the blue HB. The blue HB stars cooler than about 15,100 K and the sdB stars (Teff > 20,000 K) agree well with canonical theory when analysed with metal-rich ([M/H] = +0.5) model atmospheres, but the stars in between these two groups remain offset towards lower gravities and masses. Deep Mixing in the red giant progenitor phase is discussed as another mechanism that may influence the position of the blue HB stars in the (Teff, log g)-plane but not their masses.
White Dwarfs in Globular Clusters - Progenitors, Successors and the Real Thing  [PDF]
Sabine Moehler
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: I will start by discussing the evolutionary status of the white dwarf *progenitors*, the hot UV bright stars. Observations of UIT-selected UV bright stars in globular clusters suggest that a high percentage of them manage to evolve from the horizontal branch to the white dwarf region without passing through the thermally pulsing AGB phase, thereby avoiding the planetary nebula stage. The white dwarf successors are stars experiencing a very late helium core flash while already on the helium white dwarf cooling curve. While they have been around theoretically for quite some time strong candidates could be verified only quite recently. And, last not least, the *white dwarfs* themselves offer new opportunities to derive distances and ages of globular clusters, which I will discuss. For a discussion of white dwarfs in binaries see the reviews by Adrienne Cool and Frank Verbunt in this volume.
A lack of close binaries among hot horizontal branch stars in globular clusters. II. NGC\,2808  [PDF]
C. Moni Bidin,S. Villanova,G. Piotto,Y. Momany
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201016232
Abstract: Models based on their binary origin have been very successful in reproducing the properties of field subdwarf-B stars, but the observations of their analogues in globular clusters has posed new problems, while the discovery of multiple populations offered an appealing alternative scenario for the formation of these stars. We search for binaries of period P<200 days among a sample of blue horizontal branch stars (Teff=12000-22000 K) in NGC2808, a cluster known to host three distinct stellar populations and a multimodal horizontal branch. The final sample consists of 64 targets. The radial velocity of the targets was measured in fourteen epochs, spanning a temporal interval of about 75 days. We detect no RV variable object among stars cooler than the photometric G1 gap at 17000 K, while two close (P<10 days) and two intermediate-period (P=10-50 days) systems are found among hotter targets. The close and intermediate-period binary fraction for stars cooler than the gap are fc<5% and fip<10%, respectively, with 95% confidence. The most probable values among hotter stars are fc~20% and fip~30%, but the 90%- confidence level intervals are large (6-42% and 11-72%, respectively). The G1 gap appears as a discontinuity in the binary faction, with a higher incidence of binaries among hotter stars, but a constant increase in f with temperature rather than a discontinuity cannot be excluded from our observations. We find that intermediate-period binaries, never investigated before among cluster HB stars, could play an important role, being more than ~15-20% of the hottest stars of our sample. Our results indicate that fc among hot HB stars is most probably higher for younger clusters, confirming the recently proposed age-fc relation. However, the large observed difference in binary fraction between clusters (e.g. NGC2808 and NGC6752) is still not reproduced by binary population synthesis models.
Hot HB stars in globular clusters - physical parameters and consequences for theory. IV. sdB candidates in M 15  [PDF]
Sabine Moehler,Uli Heber,Patrick R. Durrell
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: Quantitative spectroscopic analyses of two faint blue stars (V=19.5-20.0 mag) in the globular cluster M 15 are presented. Their derived Teff, gravities and absolute magnitudes (Teff=24000K, log g=5.2, Mv=4.3; Teff=36000K, log g=5.9, Mv=4.7, respectively) are matched very well by models for the Extreme Horizontal Branch (EHB). Both stars are bona-fide subdwarf B stars making M 15 only the second globular cluster (after NGC 6752) for which the existence of sdB stars has been proven spectroscopically. While the helium abundance (one tenth solar) of F1-1 is typical for sdB stars, F2-2 surprisingly turned out to be a helium rich star, the first to be reported as a member of a globular cluster. In the field population of the Milky Way such stars are rare (less than 5% of all sdB stars). From its proximity to the helium main sequence, it is speculated that F2-2 may be a naked helium core, i.e. an Extreme Horizontal Branch star which lost (almost) all of its hydrogen-rich envelope.
Rotation of Hot Horizontal Branch Stars in the Globular Clusters NGC 1904, NGC 2808, NGC 6093 and NGC 7078  [PDF]
Alejandra Recio-Blanco,Giampaolo Piotto,Antonio Aparicio,Alvio Renzini
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/341363
Abstract: We present high resolution UVES+VLT spectroscopic observations of 56 stars in the extended horizontal branch (EHB) of the Galactic globular clusters NGC 1904, NGC 2808, NGC 6093, and NGC 7078. Our data reveal for the first time the presence in NGC 1904 of a sizable population of fast (vsini > 20 km/s) horizontal branch (HB) rotators, confined to the cool end of the EHB, similar to that found in M13. We also confirm the fast rotators already observed in NGC 7078. The cooler stars (Teff < 11,500 K) in these three clusters show a range of rotation rates, with a group of stars rotating at ~ 15 km/s or less, and a fast rotating group at ~ 30 km/s. Apparently, the fast rotators are relatively more abundant in NGC 1904 and M13, than in NGC 7078. No fast rotators have been identified in NGC 2808 and NGC 6093. All the stars hotter than Teff ~ 11,500 K have projected rotational velocities vsini < 12 km/s, but less than 20% have vsini < 2 km/s. The connection between photometric gaps in the HB and the change in the projected rotational velocities is not confirmed by the new data. However, our data are consistent with a relation between this discontinuity and the HB jump. We discuss a number of possibilities for the origin of the stellar rotation distribution along the HB. We conclude that none of them can yet provide a satisfactory explanation of the observations.
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