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Galaxy Formation in a Variety of Hierarchical Models  [PDF]
Jeremy S. Heyl,Shaun Cole,Carlos S. Frenk,Julio F. Navarro
Physics , 1994, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/274.3.755
Abstract: We predict the observable properties of the galaxy population in popular hierarchical models of galaxy formation. We employ a detailed semianalytic procedure which incorporates the formation and merging of dark matter halos, the shock heating and radiative cooling of gas, self-regulated star formation, the merging of galaxies within dark matter halos, and the spectral evolution of the stellar populations. We contrast the standard CDM cosmogony with variants of the CDM model having either a low value of H_0, or a low value of Omega with or without a cosmological constant. In addition, we compare galaxy formation in these CDM universes with a CHDM model. We find that although the models have some success in remedying the shortcomings of the standard CDM cosmogony, none of these new models produce broad agreement with the whole range of observations. Although the low-Omega and Omega+Lambda=1 CDM models reduce the discrepancy between the predicted and observed Tully-Fisher relations (the main weakness of galaxy formation in standard CDM), these models predict an inverted colour-magnitude relation and do not produce an exponential cut-off at the bright end of the galaxy luminosity function. All of our models predict recent star formation and exhibit galaxy colours bluer than observed, but this problem is far more severe in the CHDM model which produces colours about two magnitudes too blue in B-K. Unlike in the variants of the CDM model in the CHDM case this result is not dependent on our model of stellar feedback, but is instead directly caused by the late epoch of structure formation in this model.
Evolution of the Hubble Sequence in Hierarchical Models for Galaxy Formation  [PDF]
C. M. Baugh,S. Cole,C. S. Frenk
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/283.4.1361
Abstract: We present a model for the broad morphological distinction between the disk and spheroidal components of galaxies. Elaborating on the hierarchical clustering scheme of galaxy formation proposed by Cole et al., we assume that galaxies form stars quiescently in a disk until they are disrupted into a spheroidal configuration by mergers. We calculate formation and merging histories, and the evolution in colour, luminosity and morphology of the galaxy populations in different environments. Roughly $ 50\ %$ of ellipticals in our model have undergone a major merger since $z = 0.5$, yet in spite of this we find that cluster ellipticals have colour-magnitude diagrams with remarkably small scatter. The morphological mix of galaxies that become rich cluster members at high redshift is dominated by spiral galaxies, due to the long timescale for galaxy mergers compared with the timescale for cluster assembly at high redshift. The assembly of low redshift clusters is slower, allowing more galaxy mergers to occur in the progenitor halos. As a result $z=0$ rich clusters become E/S0 dominated and we find a ``Butcher-Oemler'' effect that becomes weaker for poorer groups at high redshift. The field luminosity function of red galaxies shows little evolution out to $z\simeq 1$ and the reddest galaxies at these redshifts are as bright as their local counterparts. The blue luminosity function, on the other hand, evolves rapidly with redshift, increasing its characteristic luminosity and becoming steeper at the faint end. These trends are similar to those recently observed in the Canada-France Redshift Survey.
The Structure of Reionization in Hierarchical Galaxy Formation Models  [PDF]
Han-Seek Kim,J. Stuart B. Wyithe,Sudhir Raskutti,C. G. Lacey,J. C. Helly
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sts206
Abstract: Understanding the epoch of reionization and the properties of the first galaxies represents an important goal for modern cosmology. The structure of reionization, and hence the observed power spectrum of redshifted 21cm fluctuations are known to be sensitive to the astrophysical properties of the galaxies that drove reionization. Thus, detailed measurements of the 21cm power spectrum and its evolution could lead to measurements of the properties of early galaxies that are otherwise inaccessible. In this paper, we make predictions for the ionised structure during reionization and the 21cm power spectrum based on detailed models of galaxy formation. We combine the semi-analytic GALFORM model implemented within the Millennium-II dark matter simulation, with a semi-numerical scheme to describe the resulting ionization structure. Using these models we show that the details of SNe and radiative feedback affect the structure and distribution of ionised regions, and hence the slope and amplitude of the 21 cm power spectrum. These results indicate that forthcoming measurements of the 21cm power-spectrum could be used to uncover details of early galaxy formation. We find that the strength of SNe feedback is the dominant effect governing the evolution of structure during reionization. In particular we show SNe feedback to be more important than radiative feedback, the presence of which we find does not influence either the total stellar mass or overall ionising photon budget. Thus, if SNe feedback is effective at suppressing star formation in high redshift galaxies, we find that photoionization feedback does not lead to self-regulation of the reionization process as has been thought.
The evolution of the star forming sequence in hierarchical galaxy formation models  [PDF]
Peter D. Mitchell,Cedric G. Lacey,Shaun Cole,Carlton M. Baugh
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1639
Abstract: It has been argued that the specific star formation rates of star forming galaxies inferred from observational data decline more rapidly below z = 2 than is predicted by hierarchical galaxy formation models. We present a detailed analysis of this problem by comparing predictions from the GALFORM semi-analytic model with an extensive compilation of data on the average star formation rates of star-forming galaxies. We also use this data to infer the form of the stellar mass assembly histories of star forming galaxies. Our analysis reveals that the currently available data favour a scenario where the stellar mass assembly histories of star forming galaxies rise at early times and then fall towards the present day. In contrast, our model predicts stellar mass assembly histories that are almost flat below z = 2 for star forming galaxies, such that the predicted star formation rates can be offset with respect to the observational data by factors of up to 2-3. This disagreement can be explained by the level of coevolution between stellar and halo mass assembly that exists in contemporary galaxy formation models. In turn, this arises because the standard implementations of star formation and supernova feedback used in the models result in the efficiencies of these process remaining approximately constant over the lifetime of a given star forming galaxy. We demonstrate how a modification to the timescale for gas ejected by feedback to be reincorporated into galaxy haloes can help to reconcile the model predictions with the data.
The Many Manifestations of Downsizing: Hierarchical Galaxy Formation Models confront Observations  [PDF]
Fabio Fontanot,Gabriella De Lucia,Pierluigi Monaco,Rachel S. Somerville,Paola Santini
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15058.x
Abstract: [abridged] It has been widely claimed that several lines of observational evidence point towards a "downsizing" (DS) of the process of galaxy formation over cosmic time. This behavior is sometimes termed "anti-hierarchical", and contrasted with the "bottom-up" assembly of the dark matter structures in Cold Dark Matter models. In this paper we address three different kinds of observational evidence that have been described as DS: the stellar mass assembly, star formation rate and the ages of the stellar populations in local galaxies. We compare a broad compilation of available data-sets with the predictions of three different semi-analytic models of galaxy formation within the Lambda-CDM framework. In the data, we see only weak evidence at best of DS in stellar mass and in star formation rate. We find that, when observational errors on stellar mass and SFR are taken into account, the models acceptably reproduce the evolution of massive galaxies, over the entire redshift range that we consider. However, lower mass galaxies are formed too early in the models and are too passive at late times. Thus, the models do not correctly reproduce the DS trend in stellar mass or the archaeological DS, while they qualitatively reproduce the mass-dependent evolution of the SFR. We demonstrate that these discrepancies are not solely due to a poor treatment of satellite galaxies but are mainly connected to the excessively efficient formation of central galaxies in high-redshift haloes with circular velocities ~100-200 km/s. [abridged]
Sizes and ages of SDSS ellipticals: Comparison with hierarchical galaxy formation models  [PDF]
Francesco Shankar,Federico Marulli,Mariangela Bernardi,Xinyu Dai,Joseph B. Hyde,Ravi K. Sheth
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.16137.x
Abstract: In a sample of about 45,700 early-type galaxies extracted from SDSS, we find that the shape, normalization, and dispersion around the mean size-stellar mass relation is the same for young and old systems, provided the stellar mass is greater than 3*10^10 Msun. This is difficult to reproduce in pure passive evolution models, which generically predict older galaxies to be much more compact than younger ones of the same stellar mass. However, this aspect of our measurements is well reproduced by hierarchical models of galaxy formation. Whereas the models predict more compact galaxies at high redshifts, subsequent minor, dry mergers increase the sizes of the more massive objects, resulting in a flat size-age relation at the present time. At lower masses, the models predict that mergers are less frequent, so that the expected anti-correlation between age and size is not completely erased. This is in good agreement with our data: below 3*10^10 Msun, the effective radius R_e is a factor of ~2 lower for older galaxies. These successes of the models are offset by the fact that the predicted sizes have other serious problems, which we discuss.
Disc galaxy evolution models in a hierarchical formation scenario: structure and dynamics  [PDF]
C. Firmani,V. Avila-Reese
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2000.03338.x
Abstract: We predict the structure and dynamics of disc galaxies using galaxy evolution models within a hierarchical formation scenario The halo mass aggregation histories, for a Lambda CDM model, were generated and used to calculate the virialization of dark matter (DM) haloes. A diversity of halo density profiles were obtained, the most typical one being close to the NFW profile. We modeled the formation of discs in centrifugal equilibrium within the evolving DM haloes using gas accretion rates proportional to the halo mass aggregation rates, and assuming detailed angular momentum conservation. We calculated the gravitational interactions between halo and disc, and the hydrodynamics, star formation, and evolution of the galaxy discs. We found that the slope and zero-point of the infrared Tully-Fisher relations (TFR) may be explained as a direct consequence of the cosmological initial conditions. This relation is almost independent of the assumed disc mass fraction. The rms scatter of the TFR originates mainly from the scatter in the DM halo structure and, to a minor extension, from the dispersion of the primordial spin parameter. The scatter obtained does not disagree with the observational estimates. Our models allow us to understand why the residuals of the TFR do not correlate significantly with disc size or surface brightness (SB), and why low and high SB galaxies have the same TFR. The correlations between gas fraction and SB, and between scale length and V_max agree with those observed. The discs present nearly exponential SB distributions. The shape of the rotation curves changes with the SB and is nearly flat for most cases. The rotation curve decompositions show a dominance of DM down to very small radii. The introduction of shallow cores in the DM halo attenuates this difficulty.
The Properties of Spiral Galaxies: Confronting Hierarchical Galaxy Formation Models with Observations  [PDF]
Eric F. Bell,Carlton M. Baugh,Shaun Cole,Carlos S. Frenk,Cedric G. Lacey
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2003.06673.x
Abstract: We compare the properties of local spiral galaxies with the predictions of the Cole et al. semi-analytic model of hierarchical galaxy formation, in order to gain insight into the baryonic processes that were responsible for shaping these galaxies. On the whole, the models reproduce the properties of present-day spirals (such as SFRs, SFHs, scale sizes, metallicities, and gas fractions) rather well. In particular, we find that once the effects of dust and variations in stellar populations have been taken into account, published spiral galaxy scale-size distributions derived from optical data (with logarithmic widths ~0.3) can be reconciled with the width of the stellar mass scale-size distribution predicted by the semi-analytic model (~0.5). There are some illuminating discrepancies between the observations and the model predictions. The model colours of luminous spiral galaxies are somewhat too blue and those of faint galaxies somewhat too red, most likely indicating shortcomings in the way that gas is accreted by spiral galaxies. Furthermore, the model produces too few luminous spiral galaxies. These difficulties could be resolved by altering the way in which gas cooling is treated or, perhaps, by adopting a higher baryon fraction and invoking galactic `superwinds.' Secondly, stellar M/Ls are found to be as high as observations permit. Yet, typically 60% of the mass in the inner half-light radius of the model galaxies is dark. This results in an offset between the model and observed spiral galaxy luminosity-linewidth relation. This could be resolved by substantially reducing the mass of baryons which make it into a galaxy disc (with an attendant decrease in stellar M/L), or by modifying the assumed dark matter profile to include less dark matter in the inner parts. [Abridged]
The Redshift Evolution of the Mass Function of Cold Gas in Hierarchical Galaxy Formation Models  [PDF]
C. Power,C. M. Baugh,C. G. Lacey
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16481.x
Abstract: (Abridged) Accurately predicting how the cosmic abundance of neutral hydrogen evolves with redshift is a challenging problem facing modellers of galaxy formation. We investigate the predictions of four currently favoured semi-analytical galaxy formation models applied to the Millennium simulation for the mass function of cold neutral gas (atomic and molecular) in galaxies as a function of redshift, and we use these predictions to construct number counts for the next generation of all-sky neutral atomic hydrogen (HI) surveys. Despite the different implementations of the physical ingredients of galaxy formation, we find that the model predictions are broadly consistent with one another; the key differences reflect how the models treat AGN feedback and how the timescale for star formation evolves with redshift. The models produce mass functions of cold gas in galaxies that are generally in good agreement with HI surveys at $z$=0. Interestingly we find that these mass functions do not evolve significantly with redshift. Adopting a simple conversion factor for cold gas mass to HI mass that we apply to all galaxies at all redshifts, we derive mass functions of HI in galaxies from the predicted mass functions of cold gas, which we use to predict the number counts of sources likely to be detected by HI surveys on next generation radio telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array and its pathfinders. We show also how adopting a conversion factor for cold gas mass to HI mass that varies from galaxy to galaxy impacts on number counts. In addition, we examine how the typical angular sizes of galaxies vary with redshift. Taken together, these results make clear that forthcoming HI surveys will provide important and powerful tests of theoretical galaxy formation models.
The spatial distribution of cold gas in hierarchical galaxy formation models  [PDF]
Han-Seek Kim,C. M. Baugh,A. J. Benson,S. Cole,C. S. Frenk,C. G. Lacey,C. Power,M. Schneider
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18556.x
Abstract: The distribution of cold gas in dark matter haloes is driven by key processes in galaxy formation: gas cooling, galaxy mergers, star formation and reheating of gas by supernovae. We compare the predictions of four different galaxy formation models for the spatial distribution of cold gas. We find that satellite galaxies make little contribution to the abundance or clustering strength of cold gas selected samples, and are far less important than they are in optically selected samples. The halo occupation distribution function of present-day central galaxies with cold gas mass > 10^9 h^-1 Msun is peaked around a halo mass of ~ 10^11 h^-1 Msun, a scale that is set by the AGN suppression of gas cooling. The model predictions for the projected correlation function are in good agreement with measurements from the HI Parkes All-Sky Survey. We compare the effective volume of possible surveys with the Square Kilometre Array with those expected for a redshift survey in the near-infrared. Future redshift surveys using neutral hydrogen emission will be competitive with the most ambitious spectroscopic surveys planned in the near-infrared.
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