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Subaru Spectroscopy of the Gravitational Lens HST 14176+5226: Implications for a Large Cosmological Constan  [PDF]
Youichi Ohyama,Takashi Hamana,Nobunari Kashikawa,Masashi Chiba,Toshifumi Futamase,Masanori Iye,Koji S. Kawabata,Kentaro Aoki,Toshiyuki Sasaki,George Kosugi,Tadafumi Takata
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/340565
Abstract: We present new optical spectroscopy of the lens elliptical galax in the ``Einstein Cross'' lens system HST 14176+5226, using the Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph (FOCAS) of the Subaru t Our spectroscopic observations are aimed at measuring the stella dispersion of the lens galaxy, located at high redshift of z_L= as an important component to lens models. We have measured this 230 +- 14 km s^{-1} (1 sigma) inside 0.35 effective radi based on the comparison between the observed galaxy spectrum and templates of three G-K giants by means of the Fourier cross-corr To extract the significance of this information on the geometry universe which also affects the lensing of the background image, to fit three different lens models to the available data of the Provided that the lens galaxy has the structural and dynamical p (i.e., its radial density profile, core radius, and velocity ani similar to those of local elliptical galaxies, we calculate the function for the simultaneous reproduction of both the observed and newly measured velocity dispersion of the lens. Although the interval depends rather sensitively on the adopted lens models o parameters, our experiments suggest the larger likelihood for a cosmological constant, Omega_Lambda: formal 1 sigma lower Omega_Lambda in the flat universe ranges 0.73 to 0.97, where lower limit is basically unavailable. This method for determinin model is thus dependent on lens models but is insensitive to oth ambiguities, such as the dust absorption or the evolutionary eff galaxies. Exploring spectroscopic observations of more lens gala redshift may minimize the model uncertainties and thus place a m constraint on Omega_Lambda.
Possible measurement of Quintessence and density parameter using strong gravitational lensing events  [PDF]
Toshifumi Futamase,Shijun Yoshida
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1143/PTP.105.887
Abstract: We propose a possible measurement of the time variability of the vacuum energy using strong gravitational lensing events. As an example we take an Einstein cross lens HST 14176+5226 and demonstrate that the measurement of the velocity dispersion with the accuracy of $\pm$ 5 km/sec will have a chance to determine the time dependence of the vacuum energy as well as the density parameter with the accuracy of order 0.1 if one fixes the lens model.
Discovery of a New Quadruple Lens HST 1411+5211  [PDF]
Philippe Fischer,David Schade,Felipe Barientos
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/311555
Abstract: Gravitational lensing is an important tool for probing the mass distribution of galaxies. In this letter we report the discovery of a new quadruple lens HST 1411+5211 found in archived WFPC2 images of the galaxy cluster CL140933+5226. If the galaxy is a cluster member then its redshift is $z=0.46$. The images of the source appear unresolved in the WFC implying that the source is a quasar. We have modeled the lens as both a single galaxy and a galaxy plus a cluster. The latter model yields excellent fits to the image positions along with reasonable parameters for the galaxy and cluster making HST 1411+5211 a likely gravitational lens. Determination of the source redshift and confirmation of the lens redshift would allow us to put strong constraints on the mass distribution of the lensing galaxy.
HST Observations and Models of The Gravitational Lens System MG 0414+0534  [PDF]
Emilio E. Falco,Joseph Lehar,Irwin I. Shapiro
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1086/118274
Abstract: Quadruple gravitational lens systems offer the possibility of measuring time delays for image pairs, microlensing effects, and extinction in distant galaxies. Observations of these systems may be used to obtain estimates of H_o and to study the various mass components of lens galaxies at high redshifts. With HST, we have observed the reddest known gravitational lens system, MG 0414+0534. We used WFPC2/PC1 to obtain deep, high-resolution images with two filters, F675W and F814W. We present a detailed analysis of all of the components, as well as macrolens models. Our main results are: (1) confirmation that MG 0414+0534 is inescapably a gravitational lens system; (2) discovery of a blue arc connecting the 3 brightest images of the QSO central core; (3) accurate positions and apparent brightnesses for all 4 known images of the QSO central core and for the lens galaxy G; (4) a good representation of the brightness distribution of G by elliptical isophotes with a De Vaucouleurs profile, characteristic of an elliptical galaxy; (5) models that consist of simple elliptical potentials and account qualitatively, not quantitatively, for the HST image positions, arc morphology and radio flux ratios for the images of the QSO central core; (6) a possible new test to distinguish between reddening in the host galaxy of the QSO and in the lens galaxy, based on future accurate measurements of spatial variations in the color of the arc; and (7) the suggestion that microlensing is a plausible cause for the differences between the radio and optical flux ratios for the brightest images, A1 and A2. Further observations and measurements such as of the redshift of the lens galaxy, can be used fruitfully to study microlensing for this system.
HST Observations of the Gravitationally Lensed Cloverleaf Broad Absorption Line QSO H1413+1143: Modeling the Lens  [PDF]
Kyu-Hyun Chae,David A. Turnshek
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/306962
Abstract: We investigate gravitational lens models for the quadruply-lensed Cloverleaf BAL QSO H1413+1143 based on the HST WFPC/WFPC2 astrometric and photometric data of the system by Turnshek et al. and the HST NICMOS-2 data by Falco et al. The accurate image positions and the dust-extinction-corrected relative amplifications, along with a possible detection of the lensing galaxy in the infrared, permit more accurate lens models than were previously possible. While more recent models are qualitatively consistent with the HST data, none of the previous models considered the dust-extinction-corrected relative amplifications of the image components. We use the power-law elliptical mass model to fit the HST data. We find that a single elliptical galaxy perturbed by an external shear can fit the image positions within the observational uncertainties; however, the predicted relative magnifications are only roughly consistent with the observational relative amplifications. We find that a primary galaxy combined with a secondary galaxy in the vicinity of the Cloverleaf or a cluster centered (south-)west of the Cloverleaf can fit both the image positions and relative amplifications within the observational uncertainties. We discuss future observations which could be used to test and/or further constrain lens models of the Cloverleaf.
The Top Ten List of Gravitational Lens Candidates from the HST Medium Deep Survey  [PDF]
K. U. Ratnatunga,R. E. Griffiths,E. J. Ostrander
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/300840
Abstract: A total of 10 good candidates for gravitational lensing have been discovered in the WFPC2 images from the HST Medium Deep Survey (MDS) and archival primary observations. These candidate lenses are unique HST discoveries, i.e. they are faint systems with sub-arcsecond separations between the lensing objects and the lensed source images. Most of them are difficult objects for ground-based spectroscopic confirmation or for measurement of the lens and source redshifts. Seven are ``strong lens'' candidates which appear to have multiple images of the source. Three are cases where the single image of the source galaxy has been significantly distorted into an arc. The first two quadruply lensed candidates were reported in Ratnatunga et al 1995 (ApJL, 453, L5) We report on the subsequent eight candidates and describe them with simple models based on the assumption of singular isothermal potentials. Residuals from the simple models for some of the candidates indicate that a more complex model for the potential will probably be required to explain the full structural detail of the observations once they are confirmed to be lenses. We also discuss the effective survey area which was searched for these candidate lens objects.
New "Einstein Cross" Gravitational Lens Candidates in HST WFPC2 Survey Images  [PDF]
Kavan U. Ratnatunga,Eric J. Ostrander,Richard E. Griffiths,Myungshin Im
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1086/309738
Abstract: We report the serendipitous discovery of ``Einstein cross'' gravitational lens candidates using the Hubble Space Telescope. We have so far discovered two good examples of such lenses, each in the form of four faint blue images located in a symmetric configuration around a red elliptical galaxy. The high resolution of HST has facilitated the discovery of this optically selected sample of faint lenses with small (~1 arcsec) separations between the (I ~ 25-27) lensed components and the much brighter (I ~ 19-22) lensing galaxies. The sample has been discovered in the routine processing of HST fields through the Medium Deep Survey pipeline, which fits simple galaxy models to broad band filter images of all objects detected in random survey fields using WFPC2. We show that the lens configuration can be modeled using the gravitational field potential of a singular isothermal ellipsoidal mass distribution. With this model the lensing potential is very similar, both in ellipticity and orientation, to the observed light distribution of the elliptical galaxy, as would occur when stars are a tracer population. The model parameters and associated errors have been derived by 2-dimensional analysis of the observed images. The maximum likelihood procedure iteratively converges simultaneously on the model for the lensing elliptical galaxy and the source of the lensed components. A systematic search is in progress for other gravitational lens candidates in the HST Medium Deep Survey. This should eventually lead to a good statistical estimate for lensing probabilities, and enable us to probe the cosmological component of the observed faint blue galaxy population.
HST Imaging Polarimetry of the Gravitational Lens FSC10214+4724  [PDF]
Hien T. Nguyen,Peter R. Eisenhardt,Michael W. Werner,Robert Goodrich,David W. Hogg,Lee Armus,B. T. Soifer,G. Neugebauer
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/300742
Abstract: We present imaging polarimetry of the extremely luminous, redshift 2.3 IRAS source FSC10214+4724. The observations were obtained with HST's Faint Object Camera in the F437M filter, which is free of strong emission lines. The 0.7 arcsec long arc is unresolved to 0.04 arcsec FWHM in the transverse direction, and has an integrated polarization of 28 +/- 3 percent, in good agreement with ground-based observations. The polarization position angle varies along the arc by up to 35 deg. The overall position angle is 62 +/- 3 deg east of north. No counterimage is detected to B = 27.5 mag ($3\sigma$), giving an observed arc to counterimage flux ratio greater than 250, considerably greater than the flux ratio of 100 measured previously in the I-band. This implies that the configuration of the object in the source plane at the B-band is different from that at I-band, and/or that the lensing galaxy is dusty.
Unveiling the nature of the Cloverleaf lens-system: HST/NICMOS-2 observations  [PDF]
J. -P. Kneib,D. Alloin,R. Pello
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: We present new elements in the identification of the lens-system producing the 4 images of the BAL quasar H1413+117, based on the recent HST/NICMOS-2/F160W observations. After a careful PSF subtraction of the 4 images of the quasar, the residual H image reveals the presence of a faint object (H~20.5) within the region enclosed by the 4 quasar images. This object corresponds to a single galaxy: the primary lens of the lens-system. We also identify the galaxies around the Cloverleaf which had been proposed to belong to a galaxy cluster/group at high redshift (Kneib et al 1998): the other component in the lens-system that provides the additional "external" shear. For these galaxies, we have derived a likely redshift based upon their R, I and H magnitudes. We find that most of them are consistent with belonging to a galaxy cluster/group with mean redshift =0.9 +/- 0.1. Furthermore we detect 2 very red objects (I-H~4): the faintest one has no observed optical (R and I) counterpart, while the brightest has a predicted redshift around z~2, and may be identified with one of the Cloverleaf absorbers. This gravitational-lens system constitutes an excellent target for IR imaging/spectroscopy with the new generation of 8m ground-based telescopes.
The Gravitational Lens B1608+656: I. V, I, and H-band HST Imaging  [PDF]
G. Surpi,R. D. Blandford
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/345592
Abstract: We present a multi-wavelength analysis of high-resolution observations of the quadruple lens B1608+656 from the HST archive, acquired with WFPC2 through filters F606W (V-band) and F814W (I-band), and with NIC1 in filter F160W (H-band). In the three bands, the observations show extended emission from the four images of the source in a ring-like configuration that surrounds the two, resolved, lensing galaxies. B1608+656 was discovered as a double-lobed radio source, and later identified as a post-starburst galaxy in the optical. Based on photometry and optical spectroscopy we estimate that the stellar population of the source has an age of $\sim$ 500 Myr. This provides a model for the spectrum of the source that extends over spectral regions where no observations are available, and is used to generate Tiny Tim PSFs for the filters. Deconvolutions performed with the Lucy-Richardson method are presented, and the limitations of these restorations is discussed. V$-$I and I$-$H color maps show evidence of extinction by dust associated with one of the lensing galaxies, a late type galaxy presumably disrupted after its close encounter with the other lens, an elliptical galaxy. The extinction affects the two lens galaxies and two of the four multiple images. The diagnostic of wavelength-dependent effects in the images shows that corrections for contamination with light from the lenses, extinction, and PSF convolution need to be applied before using the extended structure in the images as a constraint on lens models. We will present the restoration of the images in a subsequent paper.
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