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 W. Cassing Physics , 1997, Abstract: The production and propagation of mesons ($\pi, \eta, \rho, \omega, \Phi, K, \bar{K}, J/\Psi$) in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions from 1 - 200 GeV/u is studied within the covariant transport approach HSD, which explicitly allows to investigate selfenergy effects of the hadrons at finite baryon density. Whereas the experimental pion and $K^+$ spectra can be described without introducing any selfenergies for the mesons, the $K^-$ yield in Ni + Ni collisions is underestimated by a factor of 5 - 7 at 1.66 and 1.85 GeV/u. However, introducing density dependent antikaon masses in line with effective chiral Lagrangians a satisfactory agreement with the data is achieved. A dropping of the $\rho$-meson mass with baryon density, as suggested by QCD sumrule studies, is proposed to explain the dilepton spectra for S + Au and Pb + Au at SPS energies, which indicates independently that a partial restoration of chiral symmetry might be found already in the present experiments.
 Jean-Yves Ollitrault Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1016/S0375-9474(98)00413-8 Abstract: The various flow phenomena observed at energies between 50 AMeV and 160 AGeV are reviewed. I first define three types of flow: directed flow and elliptic flow, which are the two first Fourier components of the azimuthal distribution in non-central collisions; radial flow, which is deduced from an analysis of transverse momentum spectra in central collisions. Then, I review the observations of directed flow and elliptic flow, with emphasis on recent results. I discuss their dependence on various parameters: global geometry (impact parameter, mass numbers of colliding nuclei and bombarding energy) and individual observables (rapidity, transverse momentum and particle type). Finally, I explain how azimuthal distributions can be measured experimentally.
 Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.76.024902 Abstract: The multiplicity distributions of hadrons produced in central nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied within the hadron-resonance gas model in the large volume limit. The microscopic correlator method is used to enforce conservation of three charges - baryon number, electric charge, and strangeness - in the canonical ensemble. In addition, in the micro-canonical ensemble energy conservation is included. An analytical method is used to account for resonance decays. The multiplicity distributions and the scaled variances for negatively, positively, and all charged hadrons are calculated along the chemical freeze-out line of central Pb+Pb (Au+Au) collisions from SIS to LHC energies. Predictions obtained within different statistical ensembles are compared with the preliminary NA49 experimental results on central Pb+Pb collisions in the SPS energy range. The measured fluctuations are significantly narrower than the Poisson ones and clearly favor expectations for the micro-canonical ensemble. Thus this is a first observation of the recently predicted suppression of the multiplicity fluctuations in relativistic gases in the thermodynamical limit due to conservation laws.
 Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1016/S0375-9474(98)80011-0 Abstract: We study systematically the production of strangeness in nuclear reactions from SIS to SPS energies within the covariant hadronic transport approach HSD. Whereas the proton and pion rapidity distributions as well as pion transverse momentum spectra are well described in the hadronic transport model from 2-200 AGeV, the $K^+$ and $K^-$ spectra are noticeably underestimated at AGS energies while the $K^+$ spectra match well at SIS and SPS energies with the experimental data. We conclude that the failure of the hadronic model at AGS energies points towards a nonhadronic phase during the collision of heavy systems around 10 AGeV.
 Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.67.014904 Abstract: We calculate $p, \pi^\pm, K^\pm$ and $\Lambda$(+$\Sigma^0$) rapidity distributions and compare to experimental data from SIS to SPS energies within the UrQMD and HSD transport approaches that are both based on string, quark, diquark ($q, \bar{q}, qq, \bar{q}\bar{q}$) and hadronic degrees of freedom. The two transport models do not include any explicit phase transition to a quark-gluon plasma (QGP). It is found that both approaches agree rather well with each other and with the experimental rapidity distributions for protons, $\Lambda$'s, $\pi^\pm$ and $K^\pm$. Inspite of this apparent agreement both transport models fail to reproduce the maximum in the excitation function for the ratio $K^+/\pi^+$ found experimentally between 11 and 40 A$\cdot$GeV. A comparison to the various experimental data shows that this 'failure' is dominantly due to an insufficient description of pion rapidity distributions rather than missing 'strangeness'. The modest differences in the transport model results -- on the other hand -- can be attributed to different implementations of string formation and fragmentation, that are not sufficiently controlled by experimental data for the 'elementary' reactions in vacuum.
 Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1007/BF01292786 Abstract: The covariant and non-covariant Quantum Molecular Dynamics models are applied to investigate possible relativistic effects in heavy ion collisions at SIS energies. These relativistic effects which arise due to the full covariant treatment of the dynamics are studied at bombarding energies E$_{lab.}$ = 50, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250, 1500, 1750 and 2000 MeV/nucl.. A wide range of the impact parameter from b = 0 fm to b = 10 fm is also considered. In the present study, five systems $^{12}$C-$^{12}$C, $^{16}$O-$^{16}$O, $^{20}$Ne-$^{20}$Ne, $^{28}$Si-$^{28}$Si and $^{40}$Ca-$^{40}$Ca are investigated. The full covariant treatment at low energies shows quite good agreement with the corresponding non-covariant approach whereas at higher energies it shows less stopping and hence less thermal equilibrium as compared to the non-covariant approach. The collisions dynamics is less affected. The density using RQMD rises and drops faster than with QMD. The relativistic effects show some influence on the resonance matter production. Overall, the relativistic effects at SIS energies ($\leq$ 2000 MeV/nucl.) are less significant.
 Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1142/S0217751X0402258X Abstract: Chiral Lagrangians are used to compute the production rate of photons from the hadronic phase of relativistic nuclear collisions. Special attention is paid to the role of the pseudovector a_1 meson. Calculations that include reactions with strange mesons, hadronic form factors and vector spectral densities consistent with dilepton production, as well as the emission from a quark-gluon plasma and primordial nucleon-nucleon collisions, reproduce the photon spectra measured at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Predictions for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are made.
 Physics , 2007, Abstract: The NA49 experiment has collected comprehensive data on particle production in nucleus-nucleus collisions over the whole SPS beam energies range, the critical energy domain where the expected phase transition to a deconfined phase is expected to occur. The latest results from Pb+Pb collisions between 20$A$ GeV and 158$A$ GeV on baryon stopping and light nuclei production as well as those for strange hyperons are presented. The measured data on $p$, $\bar{p}$, $\Lambda$, $\bar{\Lambda}$, $\Xi^-$ and $\bar{\Xi}^+$ production were used to evaluate the rapidity distributions of net-baryons at SPS energies and to compare with the results from the AGS and the RHIC for central Pb+Pb (Au+Au) collisions. The dependence of the yield ratios and the inverse slope parameter of the $m_t$ spectra on the collision energy and centrality, and the mass number of the produced nuclei $^3He$, $t$, $d$ and $\bar{d}$ are discussed within coalescence and statistical approaches. Analysis of the total multiplicity exhibits remarkable agreement between the measured yield for $^3He$ and those predicted by the statistical hadronization model. In addition, new results on $\Lambda$ and $\bar{\Lambda}$ as well as $\Xi^-$ production in minimum bias Pb+Pb reactions at 40$A$ GeV and 158$A$ GeV and central C+C, Si+Si and Pb+Pb collisions are presented. The system size dependence of the yields of these hyperons was analysed to determine the evolution of strangeness enhancement relative to elementary p+p collisions.
 Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.54.1381 Abstract: We present a coherent theoretical study of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion data obtained at the CERN/SPS by the NA35/NA49 Collaborations using 3+1-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics. We find excellent agreement with the rapidity spectra of negative hadrons and protons and with the correlation measurements in two experiments: $S+S$ at 200 $AGeV$ and $Pb+Pb$ at 160 $AGeV$ (preliminary results). Within our model this implies that for $Pb+Pb$ ($S+S$) a quark-gluon-plasma of initial volume 174 $fm^3$ (24 $fm^3$) with a lifetime 3.4 $fm/c$ (1.5 $fm/c$) was formed. It is found that the Bose-Einstein correlation measurements do not determine the maximal effective radii of the hadron sources because of the large contributions from resonance decay at small momenta. Also within this study we present an NA49 acceptance corrected two-pion Bose-Einstein correlation function in the invariant variable, $Q_{inv}$.
 Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1016/S0375-9474(96)00318-1 Abstract: Dilepton production in proton- and nucleus-induced reactions is studied in relativistic transport model using initial conditions determined by the string dynamics from RQMD. It is found that both the CERES and HELIOS-3 data for dilepton spectra in proton-nucleus reactions can be well described by the `conventional' mechanism of Dalitz decay and direct vector meson decay. However, to provide a quantitative explanation of the observed dilepton spectra in central S+Au and S+W collisions requires contributions other than these direct decays. Introducing a decrease of vector meson masses in hot and dense medium, we find that these heavy-ion data can also be satisfactorily explained. This agrees with our earlier conclusions based on a fire cylinder model. We also give predictions for Pb+Au collisions at 160 GeV/nucleon using current CERES mass resolution and acceptance.
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