Abstract:
I discuss the role of spacetime supersymmetry in the interplay between strong/weak coupling duality and target space duality in string theory which arises in string/string duality. This can be seen via the construction of string soliton solutions which in $N=4$ compactifications of heterotic string theory break more than $1/2$ of the spacetime supersymmetries but whose analogs in $N=2$ and $N=1$ compactifications break precisely $1/2$ of the spacetime supersymmetries. As a result, these solutions may be interpreted as stable solitons in the latter two cases, and correspond to Bogomol'nyi-saturated states in their respective spectra.

Abstract:
The interplay between T-duality and supersymmetry in string theory is explored. It is shown that T-duality is always compatible with supersymmetry and simply changes a local realization to a non-local one and vice versa. Non-local realizations become natural using classical parafermions of the underlying conformal field theory. Examples presented include hyper-kahler metrics and the backgrounds for the SU(2) X U(1) and SU(2)/U(1) X U(1) X U(1) exact conformal field theories.

Abstract:
We review aspects of Poisson-Lie T-duality which we explicitly formulate as a canonical transformation on the world-sheet. Extensions of previous work on T-duality in relation to supersymmetry are also discussed. (Contribution to the proceedings of the 30th International Symposium Ahrenshoop on the Theory of Elementary Particles, Buckow, Germany, 26-31 August 1996)

Abstract:
Four-dimensional string backgrounds with local realizations of N = 4 world-sheet supersymmetry have, in the presence of a rotational Killing symmetry, only one complex structure which is an SO(2) singlet, while the other two form an SO(2) doublet. Although N = 2 world-sheet supersymmetry is always preserved under Abelian T-duality transformations, N = 4 breaks down to N = 2 in the rotational case. A non-local realization of N = 4 supersymmetry emerges, instead, with world-sheet parafermions. For SO(3)-invariant metrics of purely rotational type, like the Taub-NUT and the Atiyah-Hitchin metrics, none of the locally realized extended world-sheet supersymmetries can be preserved under non-Abelian duality.

Abstract:
World-sheet and spacetime supersymmetries that are manifest in some string backgrounds may not be so in their T-duals. Nevertheless, they always remain symmetries of the underlying conformal field theory. In previous work the mechanism by which T-duality destroys manifest supersymmetry and gives rise to non-local realizations was found. We give the general conditions for a 2-dim N=1 supersymmetric sigma-model to have non-local and hence non-manifest extended supersymmetry. We then examine T-duality as a mechanism of restoring manifest supersymmetry. This happens whenever appropriate combinations of non-local parafermions of the underlying conformal field theory become local due to non-trivial world-sheet effects. We present, in detail, an example arising from the model SU(2)/U(1) X SL(2,R)/U(1) and obtain a new exact 4-dim axionic instanton, that generalizes the SU(2) X U(1) semi-wormhole, and has manifest spacetime as well as N=4 world-sheet supersymmetry. In addition, general necessary conditions for abelian T-duality to preserve manifest N=4 world-sheet supersymmetry are derived and applied to WZW models based on quaternionic groups. We also prove some theorems for sigma-models with non-local N=4 world-sheet supersymmetry.

Abstract:
A sigma model with four-dimensional target space parametrized by chiral and twisted chiral N =(2,2) superfields can be extended to N =(4,4) supersymmetry off-shell, but this is not true for a model of semichiral fields, where the N = (4,4) supersymmetry can only be realized on-shell. The two models can be related to each other by T-duality. In this paper we perform a duality transformation from a chiral and twisted chiral model with off-shell N = (4,4) supersymmetry to a semichiral model. We find that additional non-linear terms must be added to the original transformations to obtain a semichiral model with N =(4,4) supersymmetry, and that the algebra closes on-shell as a direct consequence of the T-duality.

Abstract:
A simple geometric description of T-duality is given by identifying the cotangent bundles of the original and the dual manifold. Strings propagate naturally in the cotangent bundle and the original and the dual string phase spaces are obtained by different projections. Buscher's transformation follows readily and it is literally projective. As an application of the formalism, we prove that the duality is a symplectomorphism of the string phase spaces.

Abstract:
It has been often conjectured that the correct theory of quantum gravity will act as a UV regulator in the low energy limit of quantum field theory. Earlier work has shown that if the path integral defining the quantum field theory propagator is modified, so that the amplitude is invariant under the duality transformation l--> 1/l where l is the length of the path, then the propagator is UV-finite and exhibits a ``zero-point length'' of the spacetime. Since string theory uses extended structures and has a T-duality, these results should also emerge directly from string theory. We show, by explicit path integral computation, that this is indeed the case. The lowest order string theory correction to the propagator is the same as that obtained by the hypothesis of path integral duality.

Abstract:
The S--duality transformations of the lowest order string effective theory admit a space time interpretation for 4-dim backgrounds with one Killing symmetry. Starting from pure gravity and performing a sequence of intertwined T-S-T duality transformations we obtain new solutions which are always pure gravitational. In this fashion, S-duality induces an $SL(2,R)$ transformation in the space of target space metrics which coincides with the action of the Ehlers-Geroch group and interchanges the electric with the magnetic aspects of gravity. Specializing to gravitational instanton backgrounds we show that ALE instantons are mapped to (multi) Taub-NUT backgrounds and vice-versa. We find, however, that the self-duality of the metric is not generically preserved, unless the corresponding Killing vector field has self-dual covariant derivatives. Thus, the T-S-T transformations are not always compatible with the world-sheet supersymmetry of $N=4$ superconformal string vacua. We also provide an algebraic characterization of the corresponding obstruction and associate it with a breakdown of space time supersymmetry under rotational T-duality transformations.

Abstract:
We study non-local realizations of extended worldsheet supersymmetries and the associated space-time supersymmetries which arise under a T-duality transformation. These non-local effects appear when the supersymmetries do not commute with the isometry with respect to which T-duality is performed.