Abstract:
We investigate the dynamical behavior of the atom-photon entanglement in a V-type three-level quantum system using the atomic reduced entropy. It is shown that an atom and photons are entangled at the steady-state; however disentanglement can also be achieved in an special condition. It is demonstrated that in the presence of quantum interference induced by spontaneous emission, the reduced entropy and the atom-photon entanglement are phase-dependent. A non-stationary solution is also obtained when the quantum interference due to the spontaneous emission is completely included.

Abstract:
Faraday rotation based on AC Stark shifts is a mechanism that can entangle the polarization variables of photons and atoms. We analyze the structure of such entanglement by using the Schmidt decomposition method. The time-dependence of entanglement entropy and the effective Schmidt number are derived for Gaussian amplitudes. In particular we show how the entanglement is controlled by the initial fluctuations of atoms and photons.

Abstract:
We report the observation of entanglement between a single trapped atom and a single photon at a wavelength suitable for low-loss communication over large distances, thereby achieving a crucial step towards long range quantum networks. To verify the entanglement we introduce a single atom state analysis. This technique is used for full state tomography of the atom-photon qubit-pair. The detection efficiency and the entanglement fidelity are high enough to allow in a next step the generation of entangled atoms at large distances, ready for a final loophole-free Bell experiment.

Abstract:
The density matrix equations of motion in near-degenerate three-level V-type closed-loop atomic system are calculated numerically in Floquet frame. The dynamical behavior of atom- photon entanglement between the dressed atom and its spontaneous emission is studied in semi classical approach beyond the two-photon resonance condition in such a system. The quantum entropy of these two subsystems is investigated by using the von Neumann entropy. It is shown that, the degree of entanglement measure (DEM) can be controlled via the intensity and the detuning of coupling optical field and quantum interference induced by spontaneous emission. Moreover in the absence of quantum interference the steady state behavior of DEM can be achieved even in beyond the two- photon resonance condition. Furthermore in the absence of quantum interference for special parameters of Rabi frequency and detuning of driving laser field disentanglement can be occurred. Also the electromagnetically induced transparency condition can be obtained when the system is disentangled.

Abstract:
We study the system that two atoms simultaneously interact with a single-mode thermal field via different couplings and different spontaneous emission rates when two-photon process is involved. It is found that we indeed can employ the different couplings to produce the atom-atom thermal entanglement in two-photon process. The different atomic spontaneous emission rates are also utilizable in generating thermal entanglement. We also investigate the effect of the cavity leakage. To the initial atomic state $|ee> ,$a slight leakage can relieve the restriction of interaction time and we can obtain a large and steady entanglement.

Abstract:
Spontaneous emission of a photon by an atom is described theoretically in three dimensions with the initial wave function of a finite-mass atom taken in the form of a finite-size wave packet. Recoil and wave-packet spreading are taken into account. The total atom-photon wave function is found in the momentum and coordinate representations as the solution of an initial-value problem. The atom-photon entanglement arising in such a process is shown to be closely related to the structure of atom and photon wave packets which can be measured in the coincidence and single-particle schemes of measurements. Two predicted effects, arising under the conditions of high entanglement, are anomalous narrowing of the coincidence wave packets and, under different conditions, anomalous broadening of the single-particle wave packets. Fundamental symmetry relations between the photon and atom single-particle and coincidence wave packet widths are established. The relationship with the famous scenario of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen is discussed.

Abstract:
We report the observation of entanglement between a single trapped atom and a single photon at remote locations. The degree of coherence of the entangled atom-photon pair is verified via appropriate local correlation measurements, after communicating the photon via an optical fiber link of 300 m length. In addition we measured the temporal evolution of the atomic density matrix after projecting the atom via a state measurement of the photon onto several well defined spin states. We find that the state of the single atom dephases on a timescale of 150 $\mu$s, which represents an important step toward long-distance quantum networking with individual neutral atoms.

Abstract:
With the quantum interference between two transition pathways, we demonstrate a novel scheme to coherently control the momentum entanglement between a single atom and a single photon. The unavoidable disentanglement is also studied from the first principle, which indicates that the stably entangled atom--photon system with superhigh degree of entanglement may be realized with this scheme under certain conditions.

Abstract:
The atom-photon entanglement of dressed atom and its spontaneous emission in a Double-Lambda closed-loop atomic system is studied in multi-photon resonance condition. It is shown that, even in the absence of quantum interference due to the spontaneous emission, the von Neumann entropy is phase-sensitive and it can be controlled by either intensity or relative phase of the applied fields. It is demonstrated that, for the special case of Rabi frequency of the applied fields the system is maximally entangled. Moreover, the open-loop configuration is considered and it is shown that the degree of entanglement measure (DEM) can be controlled by intensity of the applied fields. Furthermore, in electromagnetically induced transparency condition, the system is disentangled. Such a system can be used for quantum information processing via entanglement using optical switching.

Abstract:
We have investigated the evolution of the atomic quantum entropy and the entanglement of atom--photon in the system with competing k-photon and l-photon transitions by means of fully quantum theory, and examined the effects of competing photon numbers (k and l), the relative coupling strength between the atom and the two-mode field (\lambda/g), and the initial photon number of the field on the atomic quantum entropy and the entanglement of atom--photon. The results show that the multiphoton competing transitions or the large relative coupling strength can lead to the strong entanglement between atoms and photons. The maximal atom--photon entanglement can be prepared via the appropriate selection of system parameters and interaction time.