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 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.024505 Abstract: A charge modulation has recently been reported in (Y,Nd)Ba$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{6+x}$ [Ghiringhelli {\em et al.} Science 337, 821 (2013)]. Here we report Cu $L_3$ edge soft x-ray scattering studies comparing the lattice modulation associated with the charge modulation in YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{6.6}$ with that associated with the well known charge and spin stripe order in La$_{1.875}$Ba$_{0.125}$CuO$_4$. We find that the correlation length in the CuO$_2$ plane is isotropic in both cases, and is $259 \pm 9$ \AA for La$_{1.875}$Ba$_{0.125}$CuO$_4$ and $55 \pm 15$ \AA for YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{6.6}$. Assuming weak inter-planar correlations of the charge ordering in both compounds, we conclude that the order parameters of the lattice modulations in La$_{1.875}$Ba$_{0.125}$CuO$_4$ and YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{6.6}$ are of the same order of magnitude.
 Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.195101 Abstract: We report combined soft and hard x-ray scattering studies of the electronic and lattice modulations associated with stripe order in La$_{1.875}$Ba$_{0.125}$CuO$_4$ and La$_{1.48}$Nd$_{0.4}$Sr$_{0.12}$CuO$_4$. We find that the amplitude of both the electronic modulation of the hole density and the strain modulation of the lattice is significantly larger in La$_{1.875}$Ba$_{0.125}$CuO$_4$ than in La$_{1.48}$Nd$_{0.4}$Sr$_{0.12}$CuO$_4$ and is also better correlated. The in-plane correlation lengths are isotropic in each case; for La$_{1.875}$Ba$_{0.125}$CuO$_4$, $\xi^{hole}=255\pm 5$ \AA\ whereas for La$_{1.48}$Nd$_{0.4}$Sr$_{0.12}$CuO$_4$F, $\xi^{hole}=111\pm 7$ \AA. We find that the modulations are temperature independent in La$_{1.875}$Ba$_{0.125}$CuO$_4$ in the low temperature tetragonal phase. In contrast, in La$_{1.48}$Nd$_{0.4}$Sr$_{0.12}$CuO$_4$, the amplitude grows smoothly from zero, beginning 13 K below the LTT phase transition. We speculate that the reduced average tilt angle in La$_{1.875}$Ba$_{0.125}$CuO$_4$ results in reduced charge localization and incoherent pinning, leading to the longer correlation length and enhanced periodic modulation amplitude.
 Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1142/S0217979200003629 Abstract: We performed systematic measurements of magnetic susceptibility on single crystals of La$_{1.875}$Ba$_{0.125-x}$Sr$_x$CuO$_4$. The dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on Sr-concentration demonstrates a step-like pattern upon doping at {\it x}$\sim$0.08 as the crystal structure changes from low-temperature tetragonal (LTT) to low-temperature orthorhombic (LTO) phase at low temperature. Upon cooling, an anomalous upturn in the susceptibility was observed at the structural phase transition between the LTT-LTO phases under the magnetic field parallel to {\it c}-axis.
 Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.057004 Abstract: In those cases where charge stripe order has been observed in cuprates, the crystal structure is such that the average rotational symmetry of the CuO2 planes is reduced from four-fold to two-fold. As a result, one could argue that the reduced lattice symmetry is essential to the existence of stripe order. We use pressure to restore the average four-fold symmetry in a single crystal of La(1.875)Ba(0.125)CuO(4), and show by x-ray diffraction that charge stripe order still occurs. Thus, electronically-driven stripe order can spontaneously break the lattice symmetry.
 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.047003 Abstract: High resolution polar Kerr effect (PKE) measurements were performed on La1.875Ba0.125Cuo4 single crystals revealing that a finite Kerr signal is measured below an onset temperature-T_K that coincides with charge ordering transition temperature T_{CO}. We further show that the sign of the Kerr signal cannot be trained with magnetic field, is found to be the same of opposite sides of the same crystal, and is odd with respect to strain in the diagonal direction of the unit cell. These observations are consistent with a chiral "gyrotropic" order above T_c for La1.875Ba0.125Cuo4; similarities to other cuprates suggest that it is a universal property in the pseudogap regime.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.157002 Abstract: We report femtosecond resonant soft X-ray diffraction measurements of the dynamics of the charge order and of the crystal lattice in non-superconducting, stripe-ordered La1.875Ba0.125CuO4. Excitation of the in-plane Cu-O stretching phonon with a mid-infrared pulse has been previously shown to induce a transient superconducting state in the closely related compound La1.675Eu0.2Sr0.125CuO4. In La1.875Ba0.125CuO4, we find that the charge stripe order melts promptly on a sub-picosecond time scale. Surprisingly, the low temperature tetragonal distortion is only weakly reduced, reacting on significantly longer time scales that do not correlate with light-induced superconductivity. This experiment suggests that charge modulations alone, and not the LTT distortion, prevent superconductivity in equilibrium.
 Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.78.174529 Abstract: We present new x-ray and neutron scattering measurements of stripe order in La(1.875)Ba(0.125)CuO(4), along with low-field susceptibility, thermal conductivity, and specific heat data. We compare these with previously reported results for resistivity and thermopower. Temperature-dependent features indicating transitions (or crossovers) are correlated among the various experimental quantities. Taking into account recent spectroscopic studies, we argue that the most likely interpretation of the complete collection of results is that an unusual form of two-dimensional superconducting correlations appears together with the onset of spin-stripe order. Recent theoretical proposals for a sinusoidally-modulated superconducting state compatible with stripe order provide an intriguing explanation of our results and motivate further experimental tests. We also discuss evidence for one-dimensional pairing correlations that appear together with the charge order. With regard to the overall phenomenology, we consider the degree to which similar behavior may have been observed in other cuprates, and describe possible connections to various puzzling phenomena in cuprate superconductors.
 Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.74.445 Abstract: Soft phonon behavior associated with a structural phase transition from the low-temperature-orthorhombic (LTO) phase ($Bmab$ symmetry) to the low-temperature-tetragonal (LTT) phase ($P4_{2}/ncm$ symmetry) was investigated in La$_{1.875}$Ba$_{0.125}$CuO$_{4}$ using neutron scattering. As temperature decreases, the TO-mode at $Z$-point softens and approaches to zero energy around $T_{\rm d2}=62$ K, where the LTO -- LTT transition occurs. Below $T_{\rm d2}$, the phonon hardens quite rapidly and it's energy almost saturates below 50 K. At $T_{\rm d2}$, the energy dispersion of the soft phonon along in-plane direction significantly changes while the dispersion along out-of-plane direction is almost temperature independent. Coexistence between the LTO phase and the LTT phase, seen in both the soft phonon spectra and the peak profiles of Bragg reflection, is discussed in context of the order of structural phase transitions.
 Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.70.104517 Abstract: We present a neutron scattering study of stripe correlations measured on a single crystal of La$_{1.875}$Ba$_{0.125}$CuO$_{4}$. Within the low-temperature-tetragonal (LTT) phase, superlattice peaks indicative of spin and charge stripe order are observed below 50 K. For excitation energies $\hbar\omega\le12$ meV, we have characterized the magnetic excitations that emerge from the incommensurate magnetic superlattice peaks. In the ordered state, these excitations are similar to spin waves. Following these excitations as a function of temperature, we find that there is relatively little change in the {\bf Q}-integrated dynamical spin susceptibility for $\hbar\omega\sim10$ meV as stripe order disappears and then as the structure transforms from LTT to the low-temperature-orthorhombic (LTO) phase. The {\bf Q}-integrated signal at lower energies changes more dramatically through these transitions, as it must in a transformation from an ordered to a disordered state. We argue that the continuous evolution through the transitions provides direct evidence that the incommensurate spin excitations in the disordered state are an indicator of dynamical charge stripes. An interesting feature of the thermal evolution is a variation in the incommensurability of the magnetic scattering. Similar behavior is observed in measurements on a single crystal of La$_{1.875}$Ba$_{0.075}$Sr$_{0.050}$CuO$_{4}$; maps of the scattered intensity in a region centered on the antiferromagnetic wave vector and measured at $\hbar\omega=4$ meV are well reproduced by a model of disordered stripes with a temperature-dependent mixture of stripe spacings. We discuss the relevance of our results to understanding the magnetic excitations in cuprate superconductors.
 Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.66.184503 Abstract: We report the results of elastic neutron scattering measurements performed on 1/8-hole doped La$_{1.875}$Ba$_{0.125-x}$Sr$_{x}$CuO$_{4}$ single crystals with {\it x}=0.05, 0.06, 0.075 and 0.085. In the low-temperature less-orthorhombic (LTLO, {\it Pccn} symmetry) phase, the charge-density-wave (CDW) and spin-density-wave (SDW) wavevectors were found to tilt in a low-symmetric direction with one-dimensional anisotropy in the CuO$_{2}$ plane, while they were aligned along the high-symmetry axis in the low-temperature tetragonal (LTT, {\it P}4$_2$/{\it ncm} symmetry) phase. The coincident direction of two wavevectors suggests a close relation between CDW and SDW orders. The SDW wavevector systematically deviates from the Cu-O bond direction in the LTLO phase upon Sr substitution and the tilt angle in the LTLO phase is smaller than that in the low-temperature orthorhombic phase (LTO, {\it B}{\it mab} symmetry) with comparable in-plane orthorhombic distortion. These results demonstrate a correlation between the corrugated pattern of CuO$_{2}$ plane and the deviations.
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