Abstract:
It is quite common that several different phases exist simultaneously in a system of trapped quantum gases of ultra-cold atoms. One such example is the strongly-interacting Fermi gas with two imbalanced spin species, which has received a great amount of attention due to the possible presence of exotic superfluid phases. By employing novel numerical techniques and algorithms, we self-consistently solve the Bogoliubov de-Gennes equations, which describe Fermi superfluids in the mean-field framework. From this study, we investigate the novel phases of spin-imbalanced Fermi gases and examine the validity of the local density approximation (LDA), which is often invoked in the extraction of bulk properties from experimental measurements within trapped systems. We show how the validity of the LDA is affected by the trapping geometry, number of atoms and spin imbalance.

Abstract:
We present an inhomogeneous theory for the low-temperature properties of a resonantly interacting Fermi mixture in a trap that goes beyond the local-density approximation. We compare the Bogoliubov-de Gennes and a Landau-Ginzburg approach and conclude that the latter is more appropriate when dealing with a first-order phase transition. Our approach incorporates the state-of-the-art knowledge on the homogeneous mixture with a population imbalance exactly and gives good agreement with the experimental density profiles of Shin {\it et al}. [Nature {\bf 451}, 689 (2008)]. We calculate the universal surface tension due to the observed interface between the equal-density superfluid and the partially polarized normal state of the mixture. We find that the exotic and gapless superfluid Sarma phase can be stabilized at this interface, even when this phase is unstable in the bulk of the gas.

Abstract:
The Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations are used for a number of theoretical works on the trapped Bose-Einstein condensates. These equations are known to give the energies of the quasi-particles when all the eigenvalues are real. We consider the case in which these equations have complex eigenvalues. We give the complete set including those modes whose eigenvalues are complex. The quantum fields which represent neutral atoms are expanded in terms of the complete set. It is shown that the state space is an indefinite metric one and that the free Hamiltonian is not diagonalizable in the conventional bosonic representation. We introduce a criterion to select quantum states describing the metastablity of the condensate, called the physical state conditions. In order to study the instability, we formulate the linear response of the density against the time-dependent external perturbation within the regime of Kubo's linear response theory. Some states, satisfying all the physical state conditions, give the blow-up and damping behavior of the density distributions corresponding to the complex eigenmodes. It is qualitatively consistent with the result of the recent analyses using the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

Abstract:
We study an ultracold trapped Fermi gas of atoms in two hyperfine states with unequal populations. In this situation the usual BCS pairing is suppressed and non-standard pairing mechanisms become important. These are treated by solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, which at the same time correctly take into account the finite size of the trapped system. We find results which can be viewed as generalization of the LOFF phase to finite systems.

Abstract:
We calculate the mean-field thermodynamics of a spherically trapped Fermi gas with unequal spin populations in the unitarity limit, comparing results from the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations and the local density approximation. We follow the usual mean-field decoupling in deriving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations and set up an efficient and accurate method for solving these equations. In the local density approximation we consider locally homogeneous solutions, with a slowly varying order parameter. With a large particle number these two approximation schemes give rise to essentially the same results for various thermodynamic quantities, including the density profiles. This excellent agreement strongly indicates that the small oscillation of order parameters near the edge of trap, sometimes interpreted as spatially inhomogeneous Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov states in previous studies of Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations, is a finite size effect. We find that a bimodal structure emerges in the density profile of the minority spin state at finite temperature, as observed in experiments. The superfluid transition temperature as a function of the population imbalance is determined, and is shown to be consistent with recent experimental measurements. The temperature dependence of the equation of state is discussed.

Abstract:
It is shown that the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations pair the electrons in states which are linear combinations of the normal states. Accordingly, the BCS-like reduction procedure is required to choose a correct pairing. For a homogeneous system, we point out that the kernel of the self-consistency equation derived from the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations needs to be constrained by the BCS pairing condition. In the presence of ordinary impurities, on the other hand, the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations should be supplemented by Anderson's pairing condition to obtain the correct vacuum state by the corresponding unitary transformation. This results in localization correction to the phonon-mediated interaction.

Abstract:
The attractive Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonian is solved via the Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism to analyze the ground state phases of population imbalanced fermion mixtures in harmonically trapped two-dimensional optical lattices. In the low density limit the superfluid order parameter modulates in the radial direction towards the trap edges to accommodate the unpaired fermions that are pushed away from the trap center with a single peak in their density. However in the high density limit while the order parameter modulates in the radial direction towards the trap center for low imbalance, it also modulates towards the trap edges with increasing imbalance until the superfluid to normal phase transition occurs beyond a critical imbalance. This leads to a single peak in the density of unpaired fermions for low and high imbalance but leads to double peaks for intermediate imbalance.

Abstract:
We analyze the vortex core states of two-species (mass imbalanced) superfluid fermion mixtures as a function of two-body binding energy in two dimensions. In particular we solve the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations for a population balanced mixture of $^{6}$Li and $^{40}$K atoms at zero temperature. We find that the vortex core is mostly occupied by the light-mass ($^{6}$Li) fermions and that the core density of the heavy-mass ($^{40}$K) fermions is highly depleted. This is in contrast with the one-species (mass balanced) mixtures with balanced populations where an equal amount of density depletion is found at the vortex core for both pseudospin components.

Abstract:
We construct a new set of generalized coherent states, the electron-hole coherent states, for a (quasi-)spin particle on the infinite line. The definition is inspired by applications to the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations where the quasi-spin refers to electron- and hole-like components of electronic excitations in a superconductor. Electron-hole coherent states generally entangle the space and the quasi-spin degrees of freedom. We show that the electron-hole coherent states allow obtaining a resolution of unity and form minimum uncertainty states for position and velocity where the velocity operator is defined using the Bogoliubov-de Gennes Hamiltonian. The usefulness and the limitations of electron-hole coherent states and the phase space representations built from them are discussed in terms of basic applications to the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation such as Andreev reflection.

Abstract:
We show that the Ginzburg-Landau expansion of the grand potential for the Bogoliubov-de Gennes Hamiltonian is determined by the integrable nonlinear equations of the AKNS hierarchy, and that this provides the natural mathematical framework for a hidden nonlinear quantum mechanical supersymmetry underlying the dynamics.