We have studied Locally Rotationally Symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type-I
cosmological model filled with anisotropic fluid in general theory of
relativity. The solutions of the field equations are obtained by using special
form of deceleration parameter which gives early deceleration and late time
accelerating cosmological model. The geometrical and physical aspect of the
model is also studied.

Abstract:
The Bianchi type III dark energy models with constant deceleration parameter are investigated. The equation of state parameter $\omega$ is found to be time dependent and its existing range for this model is consistent with the recent observations of SN Ia data, SN Ia data (with CMBR anisotropy) and galaxy clustering statistics. The physical aspect of the dark energy models are discussed.

Abstract:
New dark energy models in anisotropic Bianchi type-I (B-I) space-time with variable EoS parameter and constant deceleration parameter have been investigated in the present paper. The Einstein's field equations have been solved by applying a variation law for generalized Hubble's parameter in B-I space-time. The variation law for Hubble's parameter generates two types of solutions for the average scale factor, one is of power-law type and other is of the exponential form. Using these two forms, Einstein's field equations are solved separately that correspond to expanding singular and non-singular models of the universe respectively. The equation of state (EoS) parameter $\omega$ is found to be time dependent and its existing range for this model is in good agreement with the recent observations of SNe Ia data, SNe Ia data (with CMBR anisotropy) and galaxy clustering statistics. The cosmological constant $\Lambda$ is found to be a decreasing function of time and it approaches a small positive value at late time (i.e. the present epoch) which is corroborated by results from recent supernovae Ia observations.

Abstract:
The present study deals with spatial homogeneous and anisotropic locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi-II dark energy model in general relativity. The Einstein's field equations have been solved exactly by taking into account the proportionality relation between one of the components of shear scalar $(\sigma^{1}_{1})$ and expansion scalar $(\vartheta)$, which, for some suitable choices of problem parameters, yields time dependent equation of state (EoS) and deceleration parameter (DP), representing a model which generates a transition of universe from early decelerating phase to present accelerating phase. The physical and geometrical behavior of universe have been discussed in detail.

Abstract:
The present study deals with spatially homogeneous and anisotropic locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type I cosmological model with dominance of dark energy. To get the deterministic model of Universe, we assume that the shear scalar $(\sigma)$ in the model is proportional to expansion scalar $(\theta)$. This condition leads to $A=B^{n}$, where $A$,\;$B$ are metric potential and $n$ is positive constant. It has been found that the anisotropic distribution of dark energy leads to the present accelerated expansion of Universe. The physical behavior of the Universe has been discussed in detail.

Abstract:
Locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type-I dark energy cosmological model with variable equation of state (EoS) parameter in (Nordtvedt 1970) general scalar tensor theory of gravitation with the help of a special case proposed by (Schwinger 1970) is obtained. It is observed that these anisotropic and isotropic dark energy cosmological models always represent an accelerated universe and are consistent with the recent observations of type-Ia supernovae. Some important features of the models, thus obtained, have been discussed. 1. Introduction Nordtvedt [1] proposed a general class of scalar tensor gravitational theories in which the parameter of the Brans-Dicke (BD) theory is allowed to be an arbitrary (positive definite) function of the scalar field ( ). Considering the static spherically symmetric solution for a point mass source, Nordtvedt [1] found a variety of experimental consequences of , including a contribution to the rate of precession of Mercury’s perihelion. Several investigations have been made in higher dimensional cosmology in the framework of different scalar tensor theories of gravitation. Barker [2], Ruban and Finkelstein [3], Banerjee and Santos [4, 5], and Shanti and Rao [6, 7] are some of the authors who have investigated several aspects of the Nordtvedt general scalar tensor theory in four dimensions. Rao and Sreedevi Kumari [8] have discussed a cosmological model with negative constant deceleration parameter in a general scalar tensor theory of gravitation. Rao et al. [9] have obtained the Kaluza-Klein radiating model in a general scalar tensor theory of gravitation. Rao et al. [10] have discussed LRS Bianchi type-I dark energy cosmological model in the Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation. Rao et al. [11] have discussed Bianchi type-II, -VIII, and -IX dark energy cosmological models in the Saez-Ballester theory of gravitation. Recently, Rao et al. [12] have obtained perfect fluid dark energy cosmological models in the Saez-Ballester and general theory of gravitation. Recently, there has been considerable interest in cosmological models with dark energy in general relativity because of the fact that our universe is currently undergoing an accelerated expansion which has been confirmed by a host of observations, such as type Ia supernovae (Reiss et al. [13]; Perlmutter et al. [14]; and Tegmark et al. [15]). Based on these observations, cosmologists have accepted the idea of dark energy, which is a fluid with negative presence making up around 70% of the present universe energy content to be responsible for this acceleration due

Abstract:
The exact solutions of the Einstein field equations for dark energy (DE) in Locally Rotationally Symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type-I metric under the assumption on the anisotropy of the fluid are obtained for exponential volumetric expansion within the frame work of Lyra manifold for uniform and time varying displacement field. The isotropy of the fluid and space is examined.

Abstract:
In this paper we have investigated an LRS Bianchi I anisotropic cosmological model of the universe by taking time varying $G$ and $\Lambda$ in the presence of bulk viscous fluid source described by full causal non-equilibrium thermodynamics. We obtain a cosmological constant as a decreasing function of time and for $m, n > 0$, the value of cosmological ``constant'' for this model is found to be small and positive which is supported by the results from recent supernovae observations.

Abstract:
The present study deals with LRS Bianchi type I cosmological model representing massive string. The energy-momentum tensor for such string as formulated by Letelier (1983) is used to construct massive string cosmological models for which we assume that the shear scalar ($\sigma$) is proportional to the expansion scalar ($\theta$). The study reveals that massive strings dominate the early Universe. The strings eventually disappear from the Universe for sufficiently large time, which is in agreement with the current astronomical observations. Some physical and geometrical behaviour of models are also discussed.

Abstract:
The present study deals with spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi-I cosmological model representing massive strings. The energy-momentum tensor, as formulated by Letelier (Phys. Rev. D 28: 2414, 1983) has been used to construct massive string cosmological model for which we assume that the expansion scalar in the model is proportional to one of the components of shear tensor. The Einstein's field equations have been solved by considering time dependent deceleration parameter which renders the scale factor $a = (\sinh(\alpha t))^{\frac{1}{n}}$, where $\alpha$ and $n$ are constants. It has been detected that, for $n > 1$, the presented model has a transition of the universe from the early decelerated phase to the recent accelerating phase at present epoch while for $0 < n \leq 1$, this describes purely accelerating universe which is consistent with recent astrophysical observations. Moreover, some physical and geometric properties of the model along with physical acceptability of the solutions have been also discussed in detail.