Abstract:
The nature of the low energy spectrum of frustrated quantum spin systems is investigated by means of a topological test introduced by Y. Hatsugai which enables to infer the possible existence or absence of a gap between the ground state and excited states of these systems. The test relies on the determination of an order parameter which is a Berry phase. The structure of the spectra of even and odd-legged systems in 2d and 3d is analyzed. Results are confronted with previous work.

Abstract:
We investigate the properties of antiferromagnetic spin-S ladders with the help of local Berry phases defined by imposing a twist on one or a few local bonds. In gapped systems with time reversal symmetry, these Berry phases are quantized, hence able in principle to characterize different phases. In the case of a fully frustrated ladder where the total spin on a rung is a conserved quantity that changes abruptly upon increasing the rung coupling, we show that two Berry phases are relevant to detect such phase transitions: the rung Berry phase defined by imposing a twist on one rung coupling, and the twist Berry phase defined by twisting the boundary conditions along the legs. In the case of non-frustrated ladders, we have followed the fate of both Berry phases when interpolating between standard ladders and dimerized spin chains. A careful investigation of the spin gap and of edge states shows that a change of twist Berry phase is associated to a quantum phase transition at which the bulk gap closes, and at which, with appropriate boundary conditions, edge states appear or disappear, while a change of rung Berry phase is not necessarily associated to a quantum phase transition. The difference is particularly acute for regular ladders, in which the twist Berry phase does not change at all upon increasing the rung coupling from zero to infinity while the rung Berry phase changes 2S times. By analogy with the fully frustrated ladder, these changes are interpreted as cross-overs between domains in which the rungs are in different states of total spin from 0 in the strong rung limit to 2S in the weak rung limit. This interpretation is further supported by the observation that these cross-overs turn into real phase transitions as a function of rung coupling if one rung is strongly ferromagnetic, or equivalently if one rung is replaced by a spin 2S impurity.

Abstract:
A spin-1/2 frustrated two-leg ladder with four-spin exchange interaction is studied by quantized Berry phases. We found that the Berry phase successfully characterizes the Haldane phase in addition to the rung-singlet phase, and the dominant vector-chirality phase. The Hamiltonian of the Haldane phase is topologically identical to the S=1 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain. Decoupled models connected to the dominant vector-chirality phase revealed that the local object identified by the non-trivial ($\pi$) Berry phase is the direct product of two diagonal singlets.

Abstract:
Highly frustrated systems have macroscopically degenerate ground states that lead to novel properties. In magnetism its consequences underpin exotic and technologically important effects, such as, high temperature superconductivity, colossal magnetoresistence, and the anomalous Hall effect. One of the enduring mysteries of frustrated magnetism is why certain experimental systems have a spin glass transition and its exact nature, given that it is not determined by the strength of the dominant magnetic interactions. There have been some suggestions that real systems possess disorder of the magnetic sites or bonds that are responsible. We show that the spin glass transition in the model kagome antiferromagnet hydronium jarosite arises from a spin anisotropy. This weaker energy scale is much smaller than that of the magnetic exchange, yet it is responsible for the energy barriers that are necessary to stabilise a glassy magnetic phase at finite temperature. The resultant glassy phase is quite unlike those found in conventional disordered spin glasses as it is based on complex collective rearrangements of spins called "spin folds". This simplifies hugely theoretical treatment of both the complex dynamics characteristic of a spin glass and the microscopic nature of the spin glass transition itself.

Abstract:
A Bethe-Peierls treatment to dilution in frustrated magnets and spin liquids is given. A spin glass phase is present at low temperatures and close to the percolation point as soon as frustration takes a finite value in the dilute magnet model; the spin glass phase is reentrant inside the ferromagnetic phase. An extension of the model is given, in which the spin glass / ferromagnet phase boundary is shown not to reenter inside the ferromagnetic phase asymptotically close to the tricritical point whereas it has a turning point at lower temperatures. We conjecture similar phase diagrams to exist in finite dimensional models not constraint by a Nishimori's line. We increase frustration to study the effect of dilution in a spin liquid state. This provides a ``minimal'' ordering by disorder from an Ising paramagnet to an Ising spin glass.

Abstract:
In this paper we obtain Berry phase from Schr\"odinger equation. For vector states, basic kets are coherent states in real parameterization. We calculate Berry phase for spin S=1/2 and spin S=1 in SU(2) group and Berry phase for spin S=1 in SU(3) group.

Abstract:
We propose a method to study the magnetic properties of a disordered Ising kagome lattice. The model considers small spin clusters with infinite-range disordered couplings and short-range ferromagnetic (FE) or antiferromagnetic interactions. The correlated cluster mean-field theory is used to obtain an effective single-cluster problem. A finite disorder intensity in FE kagome lattice introduces a cluster spin-glass (CSG) phase. Nevertheless, an infinitesimal disorder stabilizes the CSG behavior in the geometrically frustrated kagome system. Entropy, magnetic susceptibility and spin-spin correlation are used to describe the interplay between disorder and geometric frustration (GF). We find that GF plays an important role in the low-disorder CSG phase. However, the increase of disorder can rule out the effect of GF.

Abstract:
Via extensive Monte Carlo studies we show that the frustrated XY Hamiltonian on a 2-D Penrose lattice admits of a spin glass phase at low temperature. Studies of the Edwards-Anderson order parameter, spin glass susceptibility, and local (linear) susceptibility point unequivocally to a paramagnetic to spin glass transition as the temperature is lowered. Specific heat shows a rounded peak at a temperature above the spin glass transition temperature, as is commonly observed in spin glasses. Our results strongly suggest that the critical point exponents are the same as obtained by Bhatt and Young in the ${\pm}J$ Ising model on a square lattice. However, unlike in the latter case, the critical temperature is clearly finite (nonzero). The results imply that a quasiperiodic 2-D array of superconducting grains in a suitably chosen transverse magnetic field should behave as a superconducting glass at low temperature.

Abstract:
ZnCr2O4 undergoes a first order spin-Peierls-like phase transition at 12.5 K from a cubic spin liquid phase to a tetragonal Neel state. Using powder diffraction and single crystal polarized neutron scattering, we determined the complex spin structure of the Neel phase. This phase consisted of several magnetic domains with different characteristic wave vectors. This indicates that the tetragonal phase of ZnCr2O4 is very close to a critical point surrounded by many different Neel states. We have also studied, using elastic and inelastic neutron scattering techniques, the effect of nonmagnetic dilution on magnetic correlations in ZnCr_{2-2x}Ga_{2x}O_4 (x=0.05 and 0.3). For x=0.05, the magnetic correlations do not change qualitatively from those in the pure material, except that the phase transition becomes second order. For x= 0.3, the spin-spin correlations become short range. Interestingly, the spatial correlations of the frozen spins in the x=0.3 material are the same as those of the fluctuating moments in the pure and the weakly diluted materials.

Abstract:
The geometric phase, in particular the Berry phase, in an entangled state of five spin-1/2 particles is studied. A time-dependent magnetic field is applied to control the time evolution of the cluster. Using the method of algebraic dynamics, we calculate the non-adiabatic geometric phase or Berry phase and the degeneracy energy levels when the magnetic rotates around Z axis. Based on the exact analytical solutions, we show how the Berry phase of the entangled state of this cluster depends on the external magnetic field parameters w （the angular velocity of the rotating magnetic field） and θ （the angle between the magnetic field and Z axis）.