Abstract:
We employ an improved estimator to calculate the constraint effective potential of the staggered magnetization in the spin $\tfrac{1}{2}$ quantum Heisenberg model using a loop-cluster algorithm. The first and second moment of the probability distribution of the staggered magnetization are in excellent agreement with the predictions of the systematic low-energy magnon effective field theory. We also compare the Monte Carlo data with the universal shape of the constraint effective potential of the staggered magnetization and study its approach to the convex effective potential in the infinite volume limit. In this way the higher-order low-energy parameter $k_0$ is determined from a fit to the numerical data.

Abstract:
We present a static, model-independent, experimental determination of the spin-spin correlation length \xi in a quantum spin system. This is achieved in doped Haldane (i.e., S=1 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic) chain Y(2)BaNi(1-x)Mg(x)O(5) by Y NMR imaging of the staggered magnetization induced around the Mg-impurities (i.e., chain boundaries) by magnetic field. The magnitude of this magnetization is found to decay exponentially with \xi equal to the theoretical prediction for an infinite S=1 chain, and the staggered magnetic moment at the edge site showing the Curie behavior of an effective S=1/2 spin.

Abstract:
The magnitude of the staggered field is calculated from the EPR data for CuGeO3 doped with Co and Fe magnetic impurities. It is found that this parameter demonstrate an anomalous temperature and magnetic field dependence probably due to (i) the specific mechanism of the staggered field generation in doped CuGeO3 and (ii) a competition between antiferromagnetic interchain exchange and staggered Zeeman energy.

Abstract:
We investigate macroscopic entanglement in an infinite XX spin-1/2 chain with staggered magnetic field, B_l=B+e^{-i\pi l}b. Using single-site entropy and by constructing an entanglement witness, we search for the existence of entanglement when the system is at absolute zero, as well as in thermal equilibrium. Although the role of the alternating magnetic field b is, in general, to suppress entanglement as do B and T, we find that when T=0, introducing b allows the existence of entanglement even when the uniform magnetic field B is arbitrarily large. We find that the region and the amount of entanglement in the spin chain can be enhanced by a staggered magnetic field.

Abstract:
The magnetic properties of graphene-related materials and in particular the spin-polarised edge states predicted for pristine graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with certain edge geometries have received much attention recently due to a range of possible technological applications. However, the magnetic properties of pristine GNRs are not predicted to be particularly robust in the presence of edge disorder. In this work, we examine the magnetic properties of GNRs doped with transition-metal atoms using a combination of mean-field Hubbard and Density Functional Theory techniques. The effect of impurity location on the magnetic moment of such dopants in GNRs is investigated for the two principal GNR edge geometries - armchair and zigzag. Moment profiles are calculated across the width of the ribbon for both substitutional and adsorbed impurities and regular features are observed for zigzag-edged GNRs in particular. Unlike the case of edge-state induced magnetisation, the moments of magnetic impurities embedded in GNRs are found to be particularly stable in the presence of edge disorder. Our results suggest that the magnetic properties of transition-metal doped GNRs are far more robust than those with moments arising intrinsically due to edge geometry.

Abstract:
We discuss the compressibility in the almost staggered fermionic Harper model with repulsive interactions in the vicinity of half-filling. It has been shown by Kraus et al. [33] that for spinless electrons and nearest neighbors electron-electron interactions the compressibility in the central band is enhanced by repulsive interactions. Here we would like to investigate the sensitivity of this conclusion to the spin degree of freedom and longer range interactions. We use the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation, as well as density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculation to evaluate the compressibility. In the almost staggered Harper model, the central energy band is essentially flat and separated from the other bands by a large gap and therefore, the HF approximation is rather accurate.In both cases the compressibility of the system is enhanced compare to the non-interacting case, although the enhancement is weaker due to the inclusion of Hubbard and longer ranged interactions.

Abstract:
We study how two magnetic impurities embedded in a solid can be entangled by an injected electron scattering between them and by subsequent measurement of the electron's state. We start by investigating an ideal case where only the electronic spin interacts successively through the same unitary operation with the spins of the two impurities. In this case, high (but not maximal) entanglement can be generated with a significant success probability. We then consider a more realistic description which includes both the forward and back scattering amplitudes. In this scenario, we obtain the entanglement between the impurities as a function of the interaction strength of the electron-impurity coupling. We find that our scheme allows us to entangle the impurities maximally with a significant probability.

Abstract:
Long-range magnetic ordering in R_2 Ba Ni O_5 (R=magnetic rare earth) quasi-1-dimensional mixed-spin antiferromagnets is described by a simple mean-field model that is based on the intrinsic staggered magnetization function of isolated Haldane spin chains for the Ni-subsystem, and single-ion magnetization functions for the rare earth ions. The model is applied to new experimental results obtained in powder diffraction experiments on Nd_2 Ba Ni O_5 and Nd Y Ba Ni O_5, and to previously published diffraction data for Er_2 Ba Ni O_5. From this analysis we extract the bare staggered magnetization curve for Haldane spin chains in these compounds.

Abstract:
We study the dynamics of entanglement in the XY spin chain subject to a staggered magnetic field and contrast it to the previously studied uniform field case. We find that, depending on parameter values, a staggered field can provide better conditions for a perfect entanglement transfer, while even a modest amount of exchange anisotropy appears to have a strong detrimental effect. We also study interactions between different waves of entanglement and assess the possibility of simultaneous transmission of multiple bits of quantum information.

Abstract:
We investigate effects of staggered magnetic field on thermal entanglement in the anisotropic XY model. The analytic results of entanglement for the two-site cases are obtained. For the general case of even sites, we show that when the anisotropic parameter is zero, the entanglement in the XY model with a staggered magnetic field is the same as that with a uniform magnetic field.