Abstract:
The disorder and a simple convex measure of complexity are studied for rank ordered power law distributions, indicative of criticality, in the case where the total number of ranks is large. It is found that a power law distribution may produce a high level of complexity only for a restricted range of system size (as measured by the total number of ranks), with the range depending on the exponent of the distribution. Similar results are found for disorder. Self-organized criticality thus does not guarantee a high level of complexity, and when complexity does arise, it is self-organized itself only if self-organized criticality is reached at an appropriate system size.

Abstract:
Power-law distributions of landslides and rockfalls observed under various conditions suggest a relationship of mass movements to self-organized criticality (SOC). The exponents of the distributions show a considerable variability, but neither a unique correlation to the geological or climatic situation nor to the triggering mechanism has been found. Comparing the observed size distributions with models of SOC may help to understand the origin of the variation in the exponent and finally help to distinguish the governing components in long-term landslide dynamics. However, the three most widespread SOC models either overestimate the number of large events drastically or cannot be consistently related to the physics of mass movements. Introducing the process of time-dependent weakening on a long time scale brings the results closer to the observed statistics, so that time-dependent weakening may play a major part in the long-term dynamics of mass movements.

Abstract:
To describe and analyze the dynamics of Self-Organized Criticality (SOC) systems, a four-state continuous-time Markov model is proposed in this paper. Different to computer simulation or numeric experimental approaches commonly employed for explaining the power law in SOC, in this paper, based on this Markov model, using E.T.Jayness' Maximum Entropy method, we have derived a mathematical proof on the power law distribution for the size of these events. Both this Makov model and the mathematical proof on power law present a new angle on the universality of power law distributions, they also show that the scale free property exists not necessary only in SOC system, but in a class of dynamical systems which can be modelled by the proposed Markov model.

Abstract:
Nonlinear dissipative systems in the state of self-organized criticality release energy sporadically in avalanches of all sizes, such as in earthquakes, auroral substorms, solar and stellar flares, soft gamma-ray repeaters, and pulsar glitches. The statistical occurrence frequency distributions of event energies $E$ generally exhibit a powerlaw-like function $N(E)\propto E^{-\alpha_E}$ with a powerlaw slope of $\alpha_E \approx 1.5$. The powerlaw slope $\alpha_E$ of energies can be related to the fractal dimension $D$ of the spatial energy dissipation domain by $D=3/\alpha_E$, which predicts a powerlaw slope $\alpha_E=1.5$ for area-rupturing or area-spreading processes with $D=2$. For solar and stellar flares, 2-D area-spreading dissipation domains are naturally provided in current sheets or separatrix surfaces in a magnetic reconnection region. Thus, this universal scaling law provides a useful new diagnostic on the topology of the spatial energy dissipation domain in geophysical and astrophysical observations.

Abstract:
A new type of spatial-temporal correlation in the process approaching to the self-organized criticality is investigated for the two simple models for biological evolution. The change behaviors of the position with minimum barrier are shown to be quantitatively different in the two models. Different results of the correlation are given for the two models. We argue that the correlation can be used, together with the power-law distributions, as criteria for self-organized criticality.

Abstract:
A simple stochastic mechanism that produces exact and approximate
power-law distributions is presented. The model considers radially symmetric
Gaussian, exponential and power-law functions inn= 1, 2, 3 dimensions. Randomly sampling these functions with a
radially uniform sampling scheme produces heavy-tailed distributions. For
two-dimensional Gaussians and one-dimensional exponential functions, exact
power-laws with exponent –1 are obtained. In other cases, densities with an
approximate power-law behaviour close to the origin arise. These densities are
analyzed using Padé approximants in order to show the approximate power-law behaviour.
If the sampled function itself follows a power-law with exponent –α, random sampling leads to densities
that also follow an exact power-law, with exponent -n/a – 1. The presented mechanism shows that power-laws can arise in generic
situations different from previously considered specialized systems such as
multi-particle systems close to phase transitions, dynamical systems at
bifurcation points or systems displaying self-organized criticality. Thus, the
presented mechanism may serve as an alternative hypothesis in system
identification problems.

Abstract:
Fractal and occasionally multifractal behaviour has been invoked to characterize (independently of their magnitude) the spatial distribution of seismic epicenters, whereas more recently, the frequency distribution of magnitudes (irrespective of their spatial location) has been considered as a manifestation of Self-Organized Criticality (SOC). In this paper we relate these two aspects on rather general grounds, (i.e. in a model independent way), and further show that this involves a non-classical SOC. We consider the multifractal characteristics of the projection of the space-time seismic process onto the horizontal plane whose values are defined by the measured ground displacements, we show that it satisfies the requirements for a first order multifractal phase transition and by implication for a non-classical SOC. We emphasize the important consequences of the stochastic alternative to the classical (deterministic) SOC.

Abstract:
The origin of self-organized criticality in a model without conservation law (Olami, Feder, and Christensen, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 68}, 1244 (1992)) is studied. The homogeneous system with periodic boundary condition is found to be periodic and neutrally stable. A change to open boundaries results in the invasion of the interior by a ``self-organized'' region. The mechanism for the self-organization is closely related to the synchronization or phase-locking of the individual elements with each other. A simplified model of marginal oscillator locking on a directed lattice is used to explain many of the features in the non-conserved model: in particular, the dependence of the avalanche-distribution exponent on the conservation parameter $\alpha$ is examined.

Abstract:
We try to design a simple model exhibiting self-organized criticality, which is amenable to a rigorous mathematical analysis. To this end, we modify the generalized Ising Curie-Weiss model by implementing an automatic control of the inverse temperature. For a class of symmetric distributions whose density satisfies some integrability conditions, we prove that the sum $S_{n}$ of the random variables behaves as in the typical critical generalized Ising Curie-Weiss model. The fluctuations are of order $n^{3/4}$ and the limiting law is $C \exp(-\lambda x^{4})\,dx$ where $C$ and $\lambda$ are suitable positive constants.

Abstract:
We show that there is a common mode of origin for the power laws observed in two different models: (i) the Pareto law for the distribution of money among the agents with random saving propensities in an ideal gas-like market model and (ii) the Gutenberg-Richter law for the distribution of overlaps in a fractal-overlap model for earthquakes. We find that the power laws appear as the asymptotic forms of ever-widening log-normal distributions for the agents' money and the overlap magnitude respectively. The identification of the generic origin of the power laws helps in better understanding and in developing generalized views of phenomena in such diverse areas as economics and geophysics.