Abstract:
The large set of accurate data on differential cross section and analyzing power from the CERN LEAR experiment on $\bar pp \to \pi^+\pi^-$ in the range from 360 to 1550 MeV/c is well reproduced within a distorted wave approximation approach. The initial $\bar pp$ scattering wave functions originate from a recent $\bar N N$ model. The transition operator is obtained from a combination of the $^3P_0$ and $^3S_1$ quark-antiquark annihilation mechanisms. A good fit to the data, in particular the reproduction of the double dip structure observed in the analyzing powers, requires quark wave functions for proton, antiproton, and pions with radii slightly larger than the respective measured charge radii. This corresponds to an increase in range of the annihilation mechanisms and consequently the amplitudes for total angular momentum J=2 and higher are much larger than in previous approaches. The final state $\pi\pi$ wave functions, parameterized in terms of $\pi\pi$ phase shifts and inelasticities, are also a very important ingredient for the fine tuning of the fit to the observables.

Abstract:
We study antiproton-proton annihilation at rest into $\pi\phi$ and $\gamma\phi$. Rescattering by $\overline{K^*}K+K^*\overline{K}$ and $\rho^{+}\rho^{-}$ for $\overline{p}p\rightarrow\pi\phi$ states is sizable, of order $(0.90\, {\rm to}\,2.6)\times 10^{-4}$ in the branching ratio, but smaller than experiment. For $\overline{p}p\rightarrow\gamma\phi$ the rescattering contributions are negligible, but the $\gamma\phi$ channel is well explained by a $\rho\phi$ intermediate state combined with vector meson dominance.

Abstract:
Fermilab experiment E835 has observed proton-antiproton annihilation production of the charmonium state chi_c0 and its subsequent decay into pi^0 pi^0. Although the resonant amplitude is an order of magnitude smaller than that of the non-resonant continuum production of pi^0 pi^0, an enhanced interference signal is evident. A partial wave expansion is used to extract physics parameters. The amplitudes J=0 and 2, of comparable strength, dominate the expansion. Both are accessed by L=1 in the entrance proton-antiproton channel. The product of the input and output branching fractions is determined to be B(pbar p -> chi_c0) x B(chi_c0 -> pi^0 pi^0)= (5.09 +- 0.81 +- 0.25) x 10^-7.

Abstract:
Quark model intrinsic wave functions of highly energetic pions in the reaction \bar pp->\pi^-\pi^+ are subjected to a relativistic treatment. The annihilation is described in a constituent quark model with A2 and R2 flavor-flux topology and the annihilated quark-antiquark pairs are in 3P_0 and 3S_1 states. We study the effects of pure Lorentz transformations on the antiquark and quark spatial wave functions and their respective spinors in the pion. The modified quark geometry of the pion has considerable impact on the angular dependence of the annihilation mechanisms.

Abstract:
We report on a detailed investigation of four-body $p p \to p p \pi^+ \pi^-$ and $p \bar{p} \to p \bar{p} \pi^+ \pi^-$) reactions which constitute an irreducible background to three-body processes $p p \to p p M$, where $M$ is a broad resonance in the $\pi^+ \pi^-$ channel, e.g. $M=\sigma, \rho^{0}, f_{0}(980), f_{2}(1275), f_{0}(1500)$. We include double-diffractive contribution (both pomeron and reggeon exchanges) as well as the pion-pion rescattering contributions. The first process dominates at higher energies and small pion-pion invariant masses while the second becomes important at lower energies and higher pion-pion invariant masses. We compare our results with the experimental data. We make predictions for future experiments at PANDA, RHIC, Tevatron and LHC energies. The two-dimensional distribution in rapidity space of pions $(y_{\pi^+}, y_{\pi^-})$ is particularly interesting. The higher the incident energy, the higher preference for the same-hemisphere emission of pions. The processes considered constitute a sizeable contribution to the total nucleon-nucleon cross section as well as to pion inclusive cross section.

Abstract:
We formulate the QCD critical point focusing effect on transverse velocity ($\beta_{t}$) dependence of antiproton to proton ($\bar{p}/p$) ratio, which was recently proposed by Asakawa {\it et al.} as an experimental signature of QCD critical point in high energy heavy ion collisions (HICs). For quantitative analysis, Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) transport model and THERMal heavy-IoN generATOR (THERMINATOR) are applied to calculate the corresponding $\beta_{t}$ dependence of $\bar{p}/p$ ratio for three gedanken focused isentropic trajectories with different focusing degree on QCD phase diagram. Finally, we obtained an observable anomaly in $\beta_{t}$ dependence of $\bar{p}/p$ ratio, which can be employed as a signature of QCD critical point.

Abstract:
Measurements, with the BRAHMS detector, of the antiproton to proton ratio at central and forward rapidities are presented for Au+Au reactions at sqrt{s_{NN}}=130 GeV, and for three different collision centralities. For collisions in the 0-40% centrality range we find $N(\bar{{\rm p}})/N({\rm p}) = 0.64 +- 0.04 (stat.) +- 0.06 (syst.) at y ~0, 0.66 +- 0.03 +- 0.06 at y ~ 0.7, and 0.41 +- 0.04 +- 0.06 at y ~ 2. The ratios are found to be nearly independent of collision centrality and transverse momentum. The measurements demonstrate that the antiproton and proton rapidity densities vary differently with rapidity, and indicate that a net-baryon free midrapidity plateau (Bjorken limit) is not reached at this RHIC energy.

Abstract:
The transverse mass distributions for antiprotons are measured at midrapidity for minimum bias Pb+Pb collisions at 158A GeV and for central Pb+Pb collisions at 20A, 30A, 40A and 80A GeV beam energies in the fixed target experiment NA49 at the CERN SPS. The rapidity density, inverse slope parameter and mean transverse mass derived from the transverse mass distributions are studied as a function of the incident energy and the collision centrality and compared to the relevant data on proton production. The shapes of the transverse mass distributions of antiproton and proton are very similar. The ratios of the particle yields, antiproton/proton and antilambda/antiproton, are also analysed. The antiproton to proton ratio exhibits an increase with decreasing centrality and a steep rise with increasing beam energy. The antilambda to antiproton ratio increases beyond unity with decreasing beam energy.

Abstract:
The presence of a critical point in the QCD phase diagram can deform the trajectories describing the evolution of the expanding fireball in the $\mu_B-T$ phase diagram. If the average emission time of hadrons is a function of transverse velocity, as microscopic simulations of the hadronic freeze-out dynamics suggest, the deformation of the hydrodynamic trajectories will change the transverse velocity ($\beta_{\rm T}$) dependence of the proton-antiproton ratio when the fireball passes in the vicinity of the critical point. An unusual $\beta_{\rm T}$-dependence of the $\bar{p}/p$ ratio in a narrow beam energy window would thus signal the presence of the critical point.

Abstract:
Data from KEK on subthreshold $\bar{\mrm{p}}$ as well as on $\pi^\pm$ and $\mrm{K}^\pm$ production in proton-, deuteron- and $\alpha$-induced reactions at energies between 2.0 and 12.0 A GeV for C, Cu and Pb targets are described within a unified approach. We use a model which considers a nuclear reaction as an incoherent sum over collisions of varying numbers of projectile and target nucleons. It samples complete events and thus allows for the simultaneous consideration of all final particles including the decay products of the nuclear residues. The enormous enhancement of the $\bar{\mrm{p}}$ cross section, as well as the moderate increase of meson production in deuteron and $\alpha$ induced compared to proton-induced reactions, is well reproduced for all target nuclei. In our approach, the observed enhancement near the production threshold is mainly due to the contributions from the interactions of few-nucleon clusters by simultaneously considering fragmentation processes of the nuclear residues. The ability of the model to reproduce the target mass dependence may be considered as a further proof of the validity of the cluster concept.