Abstract:
We study the dynamics of entanglement of two electron spins in two quantum dots, in which each electron is interacting with its nuclear spin environment. Focusing on the case of uncoupled dots, and starting from either Bell or Werner states of two qubits, we calculate the decay of entanglement due to the hyperfine interaction with the nuclei. We mostly focus on the regime of magnetic fields in which the bath-induced electron spin flips play a role, for example their presence leads to the appearance of entanglement sudden death at finite time for two qubits initialized in a Bell state. For these fields the intrabath dipolar interactions and spatial inhomogeneity of hyperfine couplings are irrelevant on the time scale of coherence (and entanglement) decay, and most of the presented calculations are performed using the uniform-coupling approximation to the exact hyperfine Hamiltonian. We provide a comprehensive overview of entanglement decay in this regime, considering both free evolution of the qubits, and an echo protocol with simultaneous application of $\pi$ pulses to the two spins. All the currently relevant for experiments bath states are considered: the thermal state, narrowed states (characterized by diminished uncertainty of one of the components of the Overhauser field) of two uncorrelated baths, and a correlated narrowed state with a well-defined value of the $z$ component of the Overhauser field interdot gradient. While we mostly use concurrence to quantify the amount of entanglement in a mixed state of the two electron spins, we also show that their entanglement dynamics can be reconstructed from measurements of the currently relevant for experiments entanglement witnesses, and the fidelity of quantum teleportation performed using a partially disentangled state as a resource.

Abstract:
We investigate entanglement of two electron spins forming Cooper pairs in an s-wave superconductor. The two-electron space-spin density matrix is obtained from the BCS ground state using a two-particle Green's function. It is demonstrated that a two spin state is not given by a spin singlet state but by a Werner state. It is found that the entanglement length, within which two spins are entangled, is not the order of the coherence length but the order of the Fermi wave length.

Abstract:
We study the dynamical generation of entanglement for a very simple system: a pair of interacting spins, s1 and s2, in a constant magnetic field. Two different situations are considered:(a) s1 ->\infty, s2 = 1/2 and (b) s1 = s2 ->\infty, corresponding, respectively, to a quantum degree of freedom coupled to a semiclassical one (a qubit in contact with an environment) and a fully semiclassical system, which in this case displays chaotic behavior. Relations between quantum entanglement and classical dynamics are investigated.

Abstract:
We compare a star and a ring network of interacting spins in terms of the entanglement they can provide between the nearest and the next to nearest neighbor spins in the ground state. We then investigate whether this entanglement can be optimized by allowing the system to interact through a weighted combination of the star and the ring geometries. We find that such a weighted combination is indeed optimal in certain circumstances for providing the highest entanglement between two chosen spins. The entanglement shows jumps and counterintuitive behavior as the relative weighting of the star and the ring interactions is varied. We give an exact mathematical explanation of the behavior for a five qubit system (four spins in a ring and a central spin) and an intuitive explanation for larger systems. For the case of four spins in a ring plus a central spin, we demonstrate how a four qubit GHZ state can be generated as a simple derivative of the ground state. Our calculations also demonstrate that some of the multi-particle entangled states derivable from the ground state of a star network are sufficiently robust to the presence of nearest neighbor ring interactions.

Abstract:
We investigate the magnetic behavior of nuclear spins embedded in a 2D interacting electron gas using a Kondo lattice model description. We derive an effective magnetic Hamiltonian for the nuclear spins which is of the RKKY type and where the interactions between the nuclear spins are strongly modified by the electron-electron interactions. We show that the nuclear magnetic ordering at finite temperature relies on the (anomalous) behavior of the 2D static electron spin susceptibility, and thus provides a connection between low-dimensional magnetism and non-analyticities in interacting 2D electron systems. Using various perturbative and non-perturbative approximation schemes in order to establish the general shape of the electron spin susceptibility as function of its wave vector, we show that the nuclear spins locally order ferromagnetically, and that this ordering can become global in certain regimes of interest. We demonstrate that the associated Curie temperature for the nuclear system increases with the electron-electron interactions up to the millikelvin range.

Abstract:
We propose how to generate genuine multipartite entanglement of electron spin qubits in a chain of quantum dots using the naturally available single-qubit rotations and two-qubit Heisenberg exchange interaction in the system. We show that the minimum number of required operations to generate entangled states of the GHZ-, cluster and W-type scales linearly with the number of qubits and estimate the fidelities of the generated entangled cluster states. As the required single and two-qubit operations have recently been realized, our proposed scheme opens the way for experimental investigation of multipartite entanglement with electron spin qubits.

Abstract:
We present a quantum solution to the electron spin decoherence by a nuclear pair-correlation method for the electron-nuclear spin dynamics under a strong magnetic field and a temperature high for the nuclear spins but low for the electron. The theory incorporates the hyperfine interaction, the intrinsic (both direct and indirect) nuclear interactions, and the extrinsic nuclear coupling mediated by the hyperfine interaction with the single electron in question. The last is shown to be important in free-induction decay (FID) of the single electron spin coherence. The spin echo eliminates the hyperfine-mediated decoherence but only reduces the decoherence by the intrinsic nuclear interactions. Thus, the decoherence times for single spin FID and ensemble spin echo are significantly different. The decoherence is explained in terms of quantum entanglement, which involves more than the spectral diffusion.

Abstract:
We investigate analytically a star network of spins, in which all spins interact exclusively with a central spin through Heisenberg XX couplings of equal strength. We find that the central spin correlates and entangles the other spins at zero temperature to a degree that depends on the total number of spins. Surprisingly, the entanglement depends on the evenness or oddness of this number and some correlations are substantial even for an infinite collection of spins. We show how symmetric multi-party states for optimal sharing and splitting of entanglement can be obtained in this system using a magnetic field.

Abstract:
We study the entanglement of magnetic impurities in an environment of electrons through successive scattering while an external magnetic field is applied. We show that the dynamics of the problem can be approximately described by a reduced model of three interacting spins, which reveals an intuitive view on how spins can be entangled by controlled electron scattering. The role of the magnetic field is rather crucial. Depending on the initial state configuration, the magnetic field can either increase or decrease the resulting entanglement but more importantly it can allow the impurities to be maximally entangled.

Abstract:
We study the time evolution of entanglement of two spins in anisotropically coupled quantum dot interacting with the unpolarized nuclear spins environment. We assume that the exchange coupling strength in the z-direction $J_z$ is different from the lateral one $J_l$. We observe that the entanglement decays as a result of the coupling to the nuclear environment and reaches a saturation value, which depends on the value of the exchange interaction difference $J=\| J_l-J_z\|$ between the two spins and the strength of the applied external magnetic field. We find that the entanglement exhibits a critical behavior controlled by the competition between the exchange interaction $J$ and the external magnetic field. The entanglement shows a quasi-symmetric behavior above and below a critical value of the exchange interaction. It becomes more symmetric as the external magnetic field increases. The entanglement reaches a large saturation value, close to unity, when the exchange interaction is far above or below its critical value and a small one as it closely approaches the critical value. Furthermore, we find that the decay rate profile of entanglement is linear when the exchange interaction is much higher or lower than the critical value but converts to a power law and finally to a Gaussian as the critical value is approached from both directions. The dynamics of entanglement is found to be independent of the exchange interaction for isotropically coupled quantum dot.