Abstract:
This essay discusses some geometric effects associated with gravitomagnetic fields and gravitomagnetic charge as well as the gravity theory of the latter. Gravitomagnetic charge is the duality of gravitoelectric charge (mass) and is therefore also termed the dual mass which represents the topological property of gravitation. The field equation of gravitomagnetic matter is suggested and a static spherically symmetric solution of this equation is offered. A possible explanation of the anomalous acceleration acting on Pioneer spacecrafts are briefly proposed.

Abstract:
Propagation of light in the gravitational field of self-gravitating spinning bodies moving with arbitrary velocities is discussed. The gravitational field is assumed to be "weak" everywhere. Equations of motion of a light ray are solved in the first post-Minkowskian approximation that is linear with respect to the universal gravitational constant $G$. We do not restrict ourselves with the approximation of gravitational lens so that the solution of light geodesics is applicable for arbitrary locations of source of light and observer. This formalism is applied for studying corrections to the Shapiro time delay in binary pulsars caused by the rotation of pulsar and its companion. We also derive the correction to the light deflection angle caused by rotation of gravitating bodies in the solar system (Sun, planets) or a gravitational lens. The gravitational shift of frequency due to the combined translational and rotational motions of light-ray-deflecting bodies is analyzed as well. We give a general derivation of the formula describing the relativistic rotation of the plane of polarization of electromagnetic waves (Skrotskii effect). This formula is valid for arbitrary translational and rotational motion of gravitating bodies and greatly extends the results of previous researchers. Finally, we discuss the Skrotskii effect for gravitational waves emitted by localized sources such as a binary system. The theoretical results of this paper can be applied for studying various relativistic effects in microarcsecond space astrometry and developing corresponding algorithms for data processing in space astrometric missions such as FAME, SIM, and GAIA.

Abstract:
Three weak gravitational effects associated with the gravitomagnetic fields are taken into account in this paper: (i) we discuss the background Lorentz transformation and gauge transformation in a linearized gravity theory, and obtain the expression for the spin of gravitational field by using the canonical procedure and Noether theorem; (ii) we point out that by using the coordinate transformation from the fixed frame to the rotating frame, it is found that the nature of Mashhoon's spin-rotation coupling is in fact an interaction between the gravitomagnetic moment of a spinning particle and the gravitomagnetic fields. The fact that the rotational angular velocity of a rotating frame can be viewed as a gravitomagnetic field is demonstrated; (iii) a purely gravitational generalization of Mashhoon's spin-rotation coupling, i.e., the interaction of the graviton spin with the gravitomagnetic fields is actually a self-interaction of the spacetime (gravitational fields). In the present paper, we will show that this self-interaction will also arise in a non-inertial frame of reference itself: specifically, a rotating frame that experiences a fluctuation of its rotational frequency (i.e., the change in the rotational angular frequency) will undergo a weak self-interaction. The self-interaction of the rotating frame, which can also be called the self-interaction of the spacetime of the rotating frame, is just the non-inertial generalization of the interaction of the graviton spin with the gravitomagnetic fields.

Abstract:
The paper summarizes the most important effects in Einsteinian gravitomagnetic fields related to propagating light rays, moving clocks and atoms, orbiting objects, and precessing spins. Emphasis is put onto the gravitational interaction of spinning objects. The gravitomagnetic field lines of a rotating or spinning object are given in analytic form.

Abstract:
We investigate general relativistic effects associated with the gravitomagnetic monopole moment of gravitational source through the analysis of the motion of test particles and electromagnetic fields distribution in the spacetime around nonrotating cylindrical NUT source. We consider the circular motion of test particles in NUT spacetime, their characteristics and the dependence of effective potential on the radial coordinate for the different values of NUT parameter and orbital momentum of test particles. It is shown that the bounds of stability for circular orbits are displaced toward the event horizon with the growth of monopole moment of the NUT object. In addition, we obtain exact analytical solutions of Maxwell equations for magnetized and charged cylindrical NUT stars.

Abstract:
When neutrinos propagate in a background, their gravitational couplings are modified by their weak interactions with the particles in the background. In a medium that contains electrons but no muons or taons, the matter-induced gravitational couplings of neutrinos are different for the various neutrino flavors, and they must be taken into account in describing the phenomena associated with the neutrino oscillations in the presence of strong gravitational fields. Here we incorporate those couplings in that description, including also the effects of a magnetic field, and consider the implications that they have for the emission of high energy neutrinos in the vicinity of Active Galactic Nuclei.

Abstract:
We study the motion of test particles in the metric of a localized and slowly rotating astronomical source, within the framework of linear gravitoelectromagnetism, grounded on a Post-Minkowskian approximation of general relativity. Special attention is paid to gravitational inductive effects due to time-varying gravitomagnetic fields. We show that, within the limits of the approximation mentioned above, there are cumulative effects on the orbit of the particles either for planetary sources or for binary systems. They turn out to be negligible.

Abstract:
Gravitational waveforms and production could be considerably affected by gravitomagnetic corrections considered in relativistic theory of orbits. Beside the standard periastron effect of General Relativity, new nutation effects come out when c^{-3} corrections are taken into account. Such corrections emerge as soon as matter-current densities and vector gravitational potentials cannot be discarded into dynamics. We study the gravitational waves emitted through the capture, in the gravitational field of massive binary systems (e.g. a very massive black hole on which a stellar object is inspiralling) via the quadrupole approximation, considering precession and nutation effects. We present a numerical study to obtain the gravitational wave luminosity, the total energy output and the gravitational radiation amplitude. From a crude estimate of the expected number of events towards peculiar targets (e.g. globular clusters) and in particular, the rate of events per year for dense stellar clusters at the Galactic Center (SgrA*), we conclude that this type of capture could give signatures to be revealed by interferometric GW antennas, in particular by the forthcoming laser interferometer space antenna LISA.

Abstract:
This note is devoted to the detailed mathematical treatment of the coupling of graviton spin to gravitomagnetic fields. The expression (i.e., $\sim g_{0m}\dot{g}_{0n}(\partial_{m}g_{0n}-\partial_{n}g_{0m})$) for the graviton spin-gravitomagnetic (S-G) coupling in the Lagrangian/Hamiltonian density of the weak gravitational fields is presented in this note.

Abstract:
The electromagnetic measurements of general relativistic gravitomagnetic effects which can be performed within a conductor embedded in the space-time of slow rotating gravitational object in the presence of magnetic field are proposed.