Abstract:
(Revised, with postscript figures appended, corrections and added comments.) We develop and describe new approaches to the problem of interacting Fermions in spatial dimensions greater than one. These approaches are based on generalizations of powerful tools previously applied to problems in one spatial dimension. We begin with a review of one-dimensional interacting Fermions. We then introduce a simplified model in two spatial dimensions to study the role that spin and perfect nesting play in destabilizing Fermion liquids. The complicated functional renormalization group equations of the full problem are made tractable in our model by replacing the continuum of points that make up the closed Fermi line with four Fermi points. Despite this drastic approximation, the model exhibits physically reasonable behavior both at half-filling (where instabilities occur) and away from half-filling (where a Luttinger liquid arises). Next we implement the Bosonization of higher dimensional Fermi surfaces introduced by Luther and advocated most recently by Haldane. Bosonization incorporates the phase space and small-angle scattering .... (7 figures, appended as a postscript file at the end of the TeX file).

Abstract:
This review is a summary of my work (partially in collaboration with Kurt Schoenhammer) on higher-dimensional bosonization during the years 1994-1996. It has been published as a book entitled "Bosonization of interacting fermions in arbitrary dimensions" by Springer Verlag (Lecture Notes in Physics m48, Springer, Berlin, 1997). I have NOT revised this review, so that there is no reference to the literature after 1996. However, the basic ideas underlying the functional bosonization approach outlined in this review are still valid today.

Abstract:
We bosonize the long-wavelength excitations of interacting fermions in arbitrary dimension by directly applying a suitable Hubbard-Stratonowich transformation to the Grassmannian generating functional of the fermionic correlation functions. With this technique we derive a surprisingly simple expression for the single-particle Greens-function, which is valid for arbitrary interaction strength and can describe Fermi- as well as Luttinger liquids. Our approach sheds further light on the relation between bosonization and the random-phase approximation, and enables us to study screening in a non-perturbative way.

Abstract:
We present an exact mapping of models of interacting fermions onto boson models. The bosons correspond to collective excitations in the initial fermionic models. This bosonization is applicable in any dimension and for any interaction between fermions. We show schematically how the mapping can be used for Monte Carlo calculations and argue that it should be free from the sign problem. Introducing superfields we derive a field theory that may serve as a new way of analytical study.

Abstract:
We investigate fermion liquids interacting with longitudinal and transverse abelian gauge fields via bosonization. In two spatial dimensions we obtain the fermion propagator for the specific case of a Coulomb plus Chern-Simons gauge action. We discuss the relevance of this result to the Halperin-Lee-Read theory of the $\nu =1/2$ Landau level and demonstrate how Kohn's theorem is satisfied.

Abstract:
The technique of extended dualization developed in this paper is used to bosonize quantized fermion systems in arbitrary dimension $D$ in the low energy regime. In its original (minimal) form, dualization is restricted to models wherein it is possible to define a dynamical quantized conserved charge. We generalize the usual dualization prescription to include systems with dynamical non--conserved quantum currents. Bosonization based on this extended dualization requires the introduction of an additional rank $0$ (scalar) field together with the usual antisymmetric tensor field of rank $(D-2)$. Our generalized dualization prescription permits one to clearly distinguish the arbitrariness in the bosonization from the arbitrariness in the quantization of the system. We study the bosonization of four--fermion interactions with large mass in arbitrary dimension. First, we observe that dualization permits one to formally bosonize these models by invoking the bosonization of the free massive Dirac fermion and adding some extra model--dependent bosonic terms. Secondly, we explore the potential of extended dualization by considering the particular case of \underbar{chiral} four--fermion interactions. Here minimal dualization is inadequate for calculating the extra bosonic terms. We demonstrate the utility of extended dualization by successfully completing the bosonization of this chiral model. Finally, we consider two examples in two dimensions which illuminate the utility of using extended dualization by showing how quantization ambiguities in a fermionic theory propagate into the bosonized version. An explicit parametrization of the quantization ambiguities of the chiral current in the Chiral Schwinger model is obtained. Similarly, for the sine--Gordon interaction in the massive Thirring model the quantization

Abstract:
We use our recently developed functional bosonization approach to bosonize interacting fermions in arbitrary dimension $d$ beyond the Gaussian approximation. Even in $d=1$ the finite curvature of the energy dispersion at the Fermi surface gives rise to interactions between the bosons. In higher dimensions scattering processes describing momentum transfer between different patches on the Fermi surface (around-the-corner processes) are an additional source for corrections to the Gaussian approximation. We derive an explicit expression for the leading correction to the bosonized Hamiltonian and the irreducible self-energy of the bosonic propagator that takes the finite curvature as well as around-the-corner processes into account. In the special case that around-the-corner scattering is negligible, we show that the self-energy correction to the Gaussian propagator is negligible if the dimensionless quantities $ ( \frac{q_{c} }{ k_{F}} )^d F_{0} [ 1 + F_{0} ]^{-1} \frac{\mu}{\nu^{\alpha}} | \frac{ \partial \nu^{\alpha} }{ \partial \mu} |$ are small compared with unity for all patches $\alpha$. Here $q_{c}$ is the cutoff of the interaction in wave-vector space, $k_{F}$ is the Fermi wave-vector, $\mu$ is the chemical potential, $F_{0}$ is the usual dimensionless Landau interaction-parameter, and $\nu^{\alpha} $ is the {\it{local}} density of states associated with patch $\alpha$. We also show that the well known cancellation between vertex- and self-energy corrections in one-dimensional systems, which is responsible for the fact that the random-phase approximation for the density-density correlation function is exact in $d=1$, exists also in $d> 1$, provided (1) the interaction cutoff $q_{c}$ is small compared with $k_{F}$, and (2) the energy dispersion is locally linearized at the Fermi the Fermi surface. Finally, we suggest a new systematic method to calculate corrections to the RPA, which is based on the perturbative calculation of the irreducible bosonic self-energy arising from the non-Gaussian terms of the bosonized Hamiltonian.

Abstract:
Low-temperature thermodynamic properties of strongly interacting Fermi liquids with fermion condensate are investigated. We demonstrate that the spin susceptibility of these systems exhibits the Curie-Weiss law, and the entropy contains a temperature-independent term. The excessive entropy is released at the superconducting transition, enhancing the specific heat jump Delta C and rendering it proportional to the effective Curie constant. The theoretical results are favorably compared with the experimental data on the heavy fermion metal CeCoIn5, as well as He-3 films.

Abstract:
Non-Fermi liquid behavior is found for the first time in a two-dimensional (2D) system with non-singular interactions using Haldane's bosonization scheme. The bosonized system is solved exactly by a generalized Bogoliubov transformation. The fermion momentum distribution, calculated using a generalized Mattis-Lieb technique, exhibits a non-universal power law in the vicinity of the Fermi surface for intermediate interaction strengths.

Abstract:
The single-particle Green's function of an interacting Fermi system with dominant forward scattering is calculated by decoupling the interaction by means of a Hubbard-Stratonowich transformation involving a bosonic auxiliary field $\phi^{\alpha}$. We obtain a higher dimensional generalization of the well-known one-dimensional bosonization result for the Green's function by first calculating the Green's function for a fixed configuration of the $\phi^{\alpha}$-field and then averaging the resulting expression with respect to the probability distribution ${\cal{P}} \{ \phi^{\alpha} \} \propto \exp [ - S_{eff} \{ \phi^{\alpha} \} ]$, where $S_{eff} \{ \phi^{\alpha} \}$ is the effective action of the $\phi^{\alpha}$-field. We emphasize the approximations inherent in the higher-dimensional bosonization approach and clarify its relation with diagrammatic perturbation theory.