Abstract:
In this lecture, we review the derivation of the holographic renormalization group given in hep-th/9912012. Some extra background material is included, and various applications are discussed.

Abstract:
Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space can be foliated by a family of nested surfaces homeomorphic to the boundary of the space. We propose a holographic correspondence between theories living on each surface in the foliation and quantum gravity in the enclosed volume. The flow of observables between our ``interior'' theories is described by a renormalization group equation. The dependence of these flows on the foliation of space encodes bulk geometry.

Abstract:
The holographic renormalization group (RG) is reviewed in a self-contained manner. The holographic RG is based on the idea that the radial coordinate of a space-time with asymptotically AdS geometry can be identified with the RG flow parameter of the boundary field theory. After briefly discussing basic aspects of the AdS/CFT correspondence, we explain how the notion of the holographic RG comes out in the AdS/CFT correspondence. We formulate the holographic RG based on the Hamilton-Jacobi equations for bulk systems of gravity and scalar fields, as was introduced by de Boer, Verlinde and Verlinde. We then show that the equations can be solved with a derivative expansion by carefully extracting local counterterms from the generating functional of the boundary field theory. The calculational methods to obtain the Weyl anomaly and scaling dimensions are presented and applied to the RG flow from the N=4 SYM to an N=1 superconformal fixed point discovered by Leigh and Strassler. We further discuss a relation between the holographic RG and the noncritical string theory, and show that the structure of the holographic RG should persist beyond the supergravity approximation as a consequence of the renormalizability of the nonlinear sigma model action of noncritical strings. As a check, we investigate the holographic RG structure of higher-derivative gravity systems, and show that such systems can also be analyzed based on the Hamilton-Jacobi equations, and that the behaviour of bulk fields are determined solely by their boundary values. We also point out that higher-derivative gravity systems give rise to new multicritical points in the parameter space of the boundary field theories.

Abstract:
General prescriptions of differential renormalization are presented. It is shown that renormalization group functions are straightforwardly expressed through some constants that naturally arise within this approach. The status of the action principle in the framework of differential renormalization is discussed.

Abstract:
We propose a direct correspondence between the classical evolution equations of 5-d supergravity and the renormalization group (RG) equations of the dual 4-d large $N$ gauge theory. Using standard Hamilton-Jacobi theory, we derive first order flow equations for the classical supergravity action $S$, that take the usual form of the Callan-Symanzik equations, including the corrections due to the conformal anomaly. This result gives direct support for the identification of $S$ with the quantum effective action of the gauge theory. In addition we find interesting new relations between the beta-functions and the counterterms that affect the 4-d cosmological and Newton constant.

Abstract:
We discuss Holographic Renormalization Group equations in the presence of fermions and form fields in the bulk. The existence of a holographically dual quantum field theory for a given bulk gravity theory imposes consistency conditions on the ranks of the form fields, the fermion - form field couplings, and leads to a novel Ward identity.

Abstract:
We give a prescription for calculating the holographic Weyl anomaly in arbitrary dimension within the framework based on the Hamilton-Jacobi equation proposed by de Boer, Verlinde and Verlinde. A few sample calculations are made and shown to reproduce the results that are obtained to this time with a different method. We further discuss continuum limits, and argue that the holographic renormalization group may describe the renormalized trajectory in the parameter space. We also clarify the relationship of the present formalism to the analysis carried out by Henningson and Skenderis.

Abstract:
The equivalence between the holographic renormalization group and the soft dilaton theorem is shown for a class of wrapped metrics solutions of the string beta function equations for the bosonic string.

Abstract:
We show that Polchinski equations in the D--dimensional matrix scalar field theory can be reduced at large $N$ to the Hamiltonian equations in a (D+1)-dimensional theory. In the subsector of the $\Tr \phi^l$ (for all $l$) operators we find the exact form of the corresponding Hamiltonian. The relation to the Holographic renormalization group is discussed.

Abstract:
We consider the holographic duality for a generic bulk theory of scalars coupled to gravity. By studying the fluctuations around Poincare invariant backgrounds with non-vanishing scalars, with the scalar and metric boundary conditions considered as being independent, we obtain all one- and two-point functions in the dual renormalization group flows of the boundary field theory. Operator and vev flows are explicitly distinguished by means of the physical condensates. The method is applied to the GPPZ and Coulomb branch flows, and field theoretical expectations are confirmed.