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High Precision Measurement of the Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio $μ_pG_E/G_M$ at low $Q^2$  [PDF]
X. Zhan,K. Allada,D. S. Armstrong,J. Arrington,W. Bertozzi,W. Boeglin,J. -P. Chen,K. Chirapatpimol,S. Choi,E. Chudakov,E. Cisbani,P. Decowski,C. Dutta,S. Frullani,E. Fuchey,F. Garibaldi,S. Gilad,R. Gilman,J. Glister,K. Hafidi,B. Hahn,J. -O. Hansen,D. W. Higinbotham,T. Holmstrom,R. J. Holt,J. Huang,G. M. Huber,F. Itard,C. W. de Jager,X. Jiang,J. Johnson,J. Katich,R. de Leo,J. J. LeRose,R. Lindgren,E. Long,D. J. Margaziotis,S. May-Tal Beck,D. Meekins,R. Michaels,B. Moffit,B. E. Norum,M. Olson,E. Piasetzky,I. Pomerantz,D. Protopopescu,X. Qian,Y. Qiang,A. Rakhman,R. D. Ransome,P. E. Reimer,J. Reinhold,S. Riordan,G. Ron,A. Saha,A. J. Sarty,B. Sawatzky,E. C. Schulte,M. Shabestari,A. Shahinyan,S. Sirca,P. Solvignon,N. F. Sparveris,S. Strauch,R. Subedi,V. Sulkosky,I. Vilardi,Y. Wang,B. Wojtsekhowski,Z. Ye,Y. Zhang
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2011.10.002
Abstract: We report a new, high-precision measurement of the proton elastic form factor ratio \mu_p G_E/G_M for the four-momentum transfer squared Q^2 = 0.3-0.7 (GeV/c)^2. The measurement was performed at Jefferson Lab (JLab) in Hall A using recoil polarimetry. With a total uncertainty of approximately 1%, the new data clearly show that the deviation of the ratio \mu_p G_E/G_M from unity observed in previous polarization measurements at high Q^2 continues down to the lowest Q^2 value of this measurement. The updated global fit that includes the new results yields an electric (magnetic) form factor roughly 2% smaller (1% larger) than the previous global fit in this Q^2 range. We obtain new extractions of the proton electric and magnetic radii, which are ^(1/2)=0.875+/-0.010 fm and ^(1/2)=0.867+/-0.020 fm. The charge radius is consistent with other recent extractions based on the electron-proton interaction, including the atomic hydrogen Lamb shift measurements, which suggests a missing correction in the comparison of measurements of the proton charge radius using electron probes and the recent extraction from the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift.
High Precision Measurement of the Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio at Low $Q^2$  [PDF]
Xiaohui Zhan
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: Jefferson Lab experiment E08-007 measured the proton elastic form factor ratio $\mu_pG_E/G_M$ in the range of $Q^2=0.3-0.7(\mathrm{GeV}/c)^2$ by recoil polarimetry. Data were taken in 2008 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Virginia, USA. A 1.2 GeV polarized electron beam was scattered off a cryogenic hydrogen target. The recoil proton was detected in the left HRS in coincidence with the elasticly scattered electrons tagged by the BigBite spectrometer. The proton polarization was measured by the focal plane polarimeter (FPP). In this low $Q^2$ region, previous measurement from Jefferson Lab Hall A (LEDEX) along with various fits and calculations indicate substantial deviations of the ratio from unity. For this new measurement, the proposed statistical uncertainty ($<1%$) was achieved. These new results are a few percent lower than expected from previous world data and fits, which indicate a smaller $G_{Ep}$ at this region. Beyond the intrinsic interest in nucleon structure, the new results also have implications in determining the proton Zemach radius and the strangeness form factors from parity violation experiments.
Precision Rosenbluth Measurement of the Proton Elastic Electromagnetic Form Factors and Their Ratio at Q^2 = 2.64, 3.20, and 4.10 GeV^2  [PDF]
Issam A. Qattan
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: Due to the inconsistency in the results of the GEp/Gmp ratio of the proton, as extracted from the Rosenbluth and recoil polarization techniques, high precision measurements of the e-p elastic scattering cross sections were made at Q^2 = 2.64, 3.20, and 4.10 GeV^2. Protons were detected, in contrast to previous measurements where the scattered electrons were detected, which dramatically decreased epsilon-dependent systematic uncertainties and corrections. A single spectrometer measured the scattered protons of interest while simultaneous measurements at Q^2 = 0.5 GeV^2 were carried out using another spectrometer which served as a luminosity monitor in order to remove any uncertainties due to beam charge and target density fluctuations. The absolute uncertainty in the measured cross sections is \approx 3% for both spectrometers and with relative uncertainties, random and slope, below 1% for the higher Q^2 protons, and below 1% random and 6% slope for the monitor spectrometer. The extracted electric and magnetic form factors were determined to 4%-7% for GEp and 1.5% for GMp. The ratio GEp/Gmp was determined to 4%-7% and showed mu_p GEp/GMp \approx 1.0. The results of this work are in agreement with the previous Rosenbluth data and inconsistent with high-Q^2 recoil polarization results, implying a systematic difference between the two techniques.
The Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio at Low Momentum Transfer  [PDF]
G. Ron,J. Glister,B. Lee
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.202002
Abstract: High precision measurements of the proton elastic form factor ratio have been made at four-momentum transfers, Q^2, between 0.2 and 0.5 GeV^2. The new data, while consistent with previous results, clearly show a ratio less than unity and significant differences from the central values of several recent phenomenological fits. By combining the new form-factor ratio data with an existing cross-section measurement, one finds that in this Q^2 range the deviation from unity is primarily due to GEp being smaller than the dipole parameterization.
Precision Rosenbluth measurement of the proton elastic form factors  [PDF]
I. A. Qattan,J. Arrington,R. E. Segel,X. Zheng,K. Aniol,O. K. Baker,R. Beams,E. J. Brash,J. Calarco,A. Camsonne,J. -P. Chen,M. E. Christy,D. Dutta,R. Ent,S. Frullani,D. Gaskell,O. Gayou,R. Gilman,C. Glashausser,K. Hafidi,J. -O. Hansen,D. W. Higinbotham,W. Hinton,R. J. Holt,G. M. Huber,H. Ibrahim,L. Jisonna,M. K. Jones,C. E. Keppel,E. Kinney,G. J. Kumbartzki,A. Lung,D. J. Margaziotis,K. McCormick,D. Meekins,R. Michaels,P. Monaghan,P. Moussiegt,L. Pentchev,C. Perdrisat,V. Punjabi,R. Ransome,J. Reinhold,B. Reitz,A. Saha,A. Sarty,E. C. Schulte,K. Slifer,P. Solvignon,V. Sulkosky,K. Wijesooriya,B. Zeidman
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.142301
Abstract: We report the results of a new Rosenbluth measurement of the proton form factors at Q^2 values of 2.64, 3.20 and 4.10 GeV^2. Cross sections were determined by detecting the recoiling proton in contrast to previous measurements in which the scattered electron was detected. At each Q^2, relative cross sections were determined to better than 1%. The measurement focussed on the extraction of G_E/G_M which was determined to 4-8% and found to approximate form factor scaling, i.e. \mu_p G_E \approx G_M. These results are consistent with and much more precise than previous Rosenbluth extractions. However, they are inconsistent with recent polarization transfer measurements of comparable precision, implying a systematic difference between the two techniques.
Measurements of electron-proton elastic cross sections for $0.4 < Q^2 < 5.5 (GeV/c)^2$  [PDF]
M. E. Christy,for the E94110 Collaboration
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.70.015206
Abstract: We report on precision measurements of the elastic cross section for electron-proton scattering performed in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. The measurements were made at 28 unique kinematic settings covering a range in momentum transfer of 0.4 $<$ $Q^2$ $<$ 5.5 $(\rm GeV/c)^2$. These measurements represent a significant contribution to the world's cross section data set in the $Q^2$ range where a large discrepancy currently exists between the ratio of electric to magnetic proton form factors extracted from previous cross section measurements and that recently measured via polarization transfer in Hall A at Jefferson Lab.
The Proton Form Factor Ratio Measurements at Jefferson Lab  [PDF]
Vina Punjabi,Charles F. Perdrisat
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20146606019
Abstract: The ratio of the proton form factors, GEp/GMp, has been measured from Q2 of 0.5 GeV2 to 8.5 GeV2, at the Jefferson Laboratory, using the polarization transfer method. This ratio is extracted directly from the measured ratio of the transverse and longitudinal polarization components of the recoiling proton in elastic electron-proton scattering. The discovery that the proton form factor ratio measured in these experiments decreases approximately linearly with four-momentum transfer, Q2, for values above ? 1 GeV2, is one of the most significant results to come out of JLab. These results have had a large impact on progress in hadronic physics; and have required a significant rethinking of nucleon structure. The increasingly common use of the double-polarization technique to measure the nucleon form factors, in the last 15 years, has resulted in a dramatic improvement of the quality of all four nucleon electromagnetic form factors, GEp, GMp, GEn and GMn. There is an approved experiment at JLab, GEP(V), to continue the ratio measurements to 12 GeV2. A dedicated experimental setup, the Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS), will be built for this purpose. It will be equipped with a focal plane polarimeter to measure the polarization of the recoil protons. The scattered electrons will be detected in an electromagnetic calorimeter. In this presentation, I will review the status of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors and discuss a number of theoretical approaches to describe nucleon form factors.
Medium Modification of the Proton Form Factor  [PDF]
S. Strauch
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1140/epjad/s2004-03-025-9
Abstract: I argue that the double ratio of proton-recoil polarization-transfer coefficients, P'_x and P'_z, of the quasielastic 4He(e,e'p)3H reaction with respect to the elastic 1H(e,e'p) reaction is sensitive to possible medium modifications of the proton form factor in 4He. Recent measurements at both Mainz and Jefferson Lab of this double ratio at four-momentum transfers squared between between 0.4 GeV2 and 2.6 GeV2 are discussed. I show that the data challenge state-of-the-art conventional meson-nucleon calculations, as these are unable to describe the results. The data hint at the need to include medium modifications of the proton form factor, as predicted by a quark-meson-coupling model, in the calculations. A recently approved follow-up experiment at a Q2 of 0.8 GeV2 and 1.3 GeV2 with unprecedented precision will provide one of the most stringent tests of the applicability of various calculations.
Measurement of the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio from \vec ^1H(\vec e, e'p)  [PDF]
C. B. Crawford,A. Sindile,T. Akdogan,R. Alarcon,W. Bertozzi,E. Booth,T. Botto,J. Calarco,B. Clasie,A. DeGrush,T. W. Donnelly,K. Dow,D. Dutta,M. Farkhondeh,R. Fatemi,O. Filoti,W. Franklin,H. Gao,E. Geis,S. Gilad,W. Haeberli,D. Hasell,W. Hersman,M. Holtrop,P. Karpius,M. Kohl,H. Kolster,T. Lee,A. Maschinot,J. Matthews,K. McIlhany,N. Meitanis,R. G. Milner,J. Rapaport,R. P. Redwine,J. Seely,A. Shinozaki,S. Sirca,E. Six,T. Smith,B. Tonguc,C. Tschalaer,E. Tsentalovich,W. Turchinetz,J. F. J. van den Brand,J. van der Laan,F. Wang,T. Wise,Y. Xiao,W. Xu,C. Zhang,Z. Zhou,V. Ziskin,T. Zwart
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.052301
Abstract: We report the first precision measurement of the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio from spin-dependent elastic scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from a polarized hydrogen internal gas target. The measurement was performed at the MIT-Bates South Hall Ring over a range of four-momentum transfer squared $Q^2$ from 0.15 to 0.65 (GeV/c)$^2$. Significantly improved results on the proton electric and magnetic form factors are obtained in combination with previous cross-section data on elastic electron-proton scattering in the same $Q^2$ region.
Low Q^2 measurements of the proton form factor ratio $mu_p G_E / G_M$  [PDF]
G. Ron,X. Zhan,J. Glister,B. Lee,K. Allada,W. Armstrong,J. Arrington,A. Beck,F. Benmokhtar,B. L. Berman,W. Boeglin,E. Brash,A. Camsonne,J. Calarco,J. P. Chen,S. Choi,E. Chudakov,L. Coman,B. Craver,F. Cusanno,J. Dumas,C. Dutta,R. Feuerbach,A. Freyberger,S. Frullani,F. Garibaldi,R. Gilman,O. Hansen,D. W. Higinbotham,T. Holmstrom,C. E. Hyde,H. Ibrahim,Y. Ilieva,C. W. de Jager,X. Jiang,M. Jones,A. Kelleher,E. Khrosinkova,E. Kuchina,G. Kumbartzki,J. J. LeRose,R. Lindgren,P. Markowitz,S. May-Tal Beck,E. McCullough,M. Meziane,Z. -E. Meziani,R. Michaels,B. Moffit,B. E. Norum,Y. Oh,M. Olson,M. Paolone,K. Paschke,C. F. Perdrisat,E. Piasetzky,M. Potokar,R. Pomatsalyuk,I. Pomerantz,A. Puckett,V. Punjabi,X. Qian,Y. Qiang,R. Ransome,M. Reyhan,J. Roche,Y. Rousseau,A. Saha,A. J. Sarty,B. Sawatzky,E. Schulte,M. Shabestari,A. Shahinyan,R. Shneor,S. Sirca,K. Slifer,P. Solvignon,J. Song,R. Sparks,R. Subedi,S. Strauch,G. M. Urciuoli,K. Wang,B. Wojtsekhowski,X. Yan,H. Yao,X. Zhu
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.84.055204
Abstract: We present an updated extraction of the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio, mu_p G_E/G_M, at low Q^2. The form factors are sensitive to the spatial distribution of the proton, and precise measurements can be used to constrain models of the proton. An improved selection of the elastic events and reduced background contributions yielded a small systematic reduction in the ratio mu_p G_E/G_M compared to the original analysis.
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