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A search for VHE counterparts of Galactic Fermi bright sources and MeV to TeV spectral characterization  [PDF]
P. H. Thomas Tam,Stefan Wagner,Omar Tibolla,Ryan Chaves
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200913717
Abstract: Very high-energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) gamma-rays have been detected from a wide range of astronomical objects, such as pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), supernova remnants (SNRs), giant molecular clouds, gamma-ray binaries, the Galactic Center, active galactic nuclei (AGN), radio galaxies, starburst galaxies, and possibly star-forming regions as well. At lower energies, observations using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard Fermi provide a rich set of data which can be used to study the behavior of cosmic accelerators in the MeV to TeV energy bands. In particular, the improved angular resolution of current telescopes in both bands compared to previous instruments significantly reduces source confusion and facilitates the identification of associated counterparts at lower energies. In this paper, a comprehensive search for VHE gamma-ray sources which are spatially coincident with Galactic Fermi/LAT bright sources is performed, and the available MeV to TeV spectra of coincident sources are compared. It is found that bright LAT GeV sources are correlated with TeV sources, in contrast to previous studies using EGRET data. Moreover, a single spectral component seems unable to describe the MeV to TeV spectra of many coincident GeV/TeV sources. It has been suggested that gamma-ray pulsars may be accompanied by VHE gamma-ray emitting nebulae, a hypothesis that can be tested with VHE observations of these pulsars.
Galactic sources of E>100 GeV gamma-rays seen by Fermi telescope  [PDF]
A. Neronov,D. V. Semikoz
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: We perform a search for sources of gamma-rays with energies E>100 GeV at low Galactic latitudes |b|<10 deg using the data of Fermi telescope. To separate compact gamma-ray sources from the diffuse emission from the Galaxy, we use the Minimal Spanning Tree method with threshold of 5 events in inner Galaxy (Galactic longitude |l|<60 deg) and of 3 events in outer Galaxy. Using this method, we identify 22 clusters of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-rays, which we consider as "source candidates". 3 out of 22 event clusters are expected to be produced in result of random coincidences of arrival directions of diffuse background photons. To distinguish clusters of VHE events produced by real sources from the background we perform likelihood analysis on each source candidate. We present a list of 19 higher significance sources for which the likelihood analysis in the energy band E>100 GeV gives Test Statistics (TS) values above 25. Only 10 out of the 19 high-significance sources can be readily identified with previously known VHE gamma-ray sources. 4 sources could be parts of extended emission from known VHE gamma-ray sources. Five sources are new detections in the VHE band. Among these new detections we tentatively identify one source as a possible extragalactic source PMN J1603-4904 (a blazar candidate), one as a pulsar wind nebula around PSR J1828-1007. High significance cluster of VHE events is also found at the position of a source coincident with the Eta Carinae nebula. In the Galactic Center region, strong VHE gamma-ray signal is detected from Sgr C molecular cloud, but not from the Galactic Center itself.
Latest results on Galactic sources as seen in VHE gamma-rays  [PDF]
Matthieu Renaud
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: As of early 2009, latest results on Galactic sources (mainly shell-type and plerionic supernova remnants), as observed in the very-high-energy gamma-ray domain, are reviewed. A particular attention is given to those obtained with the H.E.S.S experiment during its Galactic Plane Survey which now covers the inner part of the Milky Way. From the well identified gamma-ray sources to those without any obvious counterpart and the putative Galactic diffuse emission, this observational window fully deserves to be celebrated during this International Year of Astronomy, as a new mean to image the Galaxy and reveal sites of particle acceleration, potentially at the origin of Galactic cosmic rays.
Swift/XRT counterparts to unassociated Fermi high-energy LAT sources  [PDF]
R. Landi,L. Bassani,J. B. Stephen,N. Masetti,A. Malizia,P. Ubertini
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201526221
Abstract: We report the results from our analysis of a large set of archival data acquired with the X-ray telescope (XRT) onboard Swift, covering the sky region surrounding objects from the first Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) catalogue of high-energy sources (1FHL), which still lack an association. Of the 23 regions analysed, ten did not show any evidence of X-ray emission, but 13 were characterised by the presence of one or more objects emitting in the 0.3-10 keV band. Only in a couple of cases is the X-ray counterpart located outside the Fermi positional uncertainty, while in all other cases the associations found are compatible with the high-energy error ellipses. All counterparts we found have been studied in detail by means of a multi-waveband approach to evaluate their nature or class; in most cases, we have been able to propose a likely or possible association except for one Fermi source whose nature remains doubtful at the moment. The majority of the likely associations are extragalactic in nature, most probably blazars of the BL Lac type.
Fermi-LAT results on Galactic Plane gamma-ray Transient Sources  [PDF]
Sylvain Chaty
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: The Large Area Telescope on the Fermi gamma-ray Space Telescope provides unprecedented sensitivity for all-sky monitoring of gamma-ray activity. It has detected a few Galactic sources, including 2 gamma-ray binaries and a microquasar. In addition, it is an adequate telescope to detect other transient sources. The observatory scans the entire sky every three hours and allows a general search for flaring activity on daily timescales. This search is conducted automatically as part of the ground processing of the data and allows a fast response to transient events, typically less than a day. Most of the outbursts detected are spatially associated with known blazars, but in several cases during the first years of observations, gamma-ray flares occurring near the Galactic plane did not reveal any initially compelling counterparts. This prompted follow-up observations in X-ray, optical, and radio to attempt to identify the origin of the emission and probe the possible existence of a class of transient gamma-ray sources in the Galaxy. Here we report on these LAT events and the results of the multiwavelength counterpart searches.
A study of the association of Fermi sources with massive young galactic objects  [PDF]
Pere Munar-Adrover,Josep Maria Paredes,Gustavo Esteban Romero
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201116580
Abstract: Massive protostars have associated bipolar outflows that can produce strong shocks when they interact with the surrounding medium. At these shocks particles can be accelerated up to relativistic energies. Relativistic electrons and protons can then produce gamma-ray emission, as some theoretical models predict. To identify young galactic objects that may emit gamma rays, we crossed the Fermi First Year Catalog with some catalogs of known massive young stellar objects (MYSOs), early type stars, and OB associations, and we implemented Monte Carlo simulations to find the probability of chance coincidences. We obtained a list of massive MYSOs that are spatially coincident with Fermi sources. Our results indicate that \sim 70% of these candidates should be gamma-ray sources with a confidence of \sim 5{\sigma}. We studied the coincidences one by one to check the viability of these young sources as potential counterparts to Fermi sources and made a short list of best targets for new detailed multifrequency observations. The results for other type of young galactic objects are not conclusive.
The Detection of Fermi AGN above 100 GeV using Clustering Analysis  [PDF]
Thomas Armstrong,Anthony M. Brown,Paula M. Chadwick,S. J. Nolan
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1398
Abstract: The density-based clustering algorithm DBSCAN has been applied to the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) dataset of $ E_{\gamma} \geqslant 100$ GeV events with $\lvert b\rvert>10^{\circ}$, in order to search for new very high energy (VHE) $\gamma$-ray sources. The clustering analysis returned 49 clusters, of which 21 correspond to already known VHE-emitting active galactic nuclei (AGN) within the TeVCat catalogue and a further 11 were found to be significant in a full Fermi analysis. Of these, 2 are previously detected Fermi VHE AGN, and 9 represent new VHE sources consisting of 6 BL Lac objects, one blazar of unknown type and 2 unassociated sources. Comparing these, along with the VHE AGN RBS 0679 and RBS 0970 previously detected with Fermi-LAT, to the current populations of AGN detected with ground-based instruments and Fermi suggests that the VHE-emitting AGN discovered in this study are very similar to the TeVCat AGN and therefore further observations with ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes are recommended.
Fermi LAT detection of two high Galactic latitude gamma-ray sources, Fermi J1049.7+0435 and J1103.2+1145  [PDF]
Masaki Nishimichi,Takeshi Okuda,Masaki Mori,Philip G. Edwards,Jamie Stevens
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: During a search for gamma-ray emission from NGC 3628 (Arp 317), two new unidentified gamma-ray sources, Fermi J1049.7+0435 and J1103.2+1145 have been discovered \cite{ATel}. The detections are made in data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT), on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, in the 100\,MeV to 300\,GeV band during the period between 2008 August 5 and 2012 October 27. Neither is coincident with any source listed in the 2FGL catalogue \cite{Nolan2012}. Fermi J1049.7+0435 is at Galactic coordinates $(l,b) = (245.34^\circ, 53.27^\circ)$, $(\alpha_{J2000}, \delta_{J2000}) = (162.43^\circ, 4.60^\circ)$. Fermi J1103.2+1145 is at Galactic coordinates $(l,b) = (238.85^\circ, 60.33^\circ)$, $(\alpha_{J2000},\delta_{J2000})= (165.81^\circ, 11.75^\circ)$. Possible radio counterparts are found for both sources, which show flat radio spectra similar to other Fermi LAT detected AGN, and their identifications are discussed. These identification have been supoorted by snap-shot observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array at several epochs in 2013 and 2014,
The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. Optical Counterparts to the X-ray Sources in the Galactic Bulge  [PDF]
A. Udalski,K. Kowalczyk,I. Soszynski,R. Poleski,M. K. Szymanski,M. Kubiak,G. Pietrzynski,S. Kozlowski,P. Pietrukowicz,K. Ulaczyk,J. Skowron,L. Wyrzykowski
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: We present a sample of 209 variable objects - very likely optical counterparts to the X-ray sources detected in the direction of the Galactic center by the Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) carried out with the Chandra satellite. The variable sources were found in the databases of the OGLE long term survey monitoring regularly the Galactic bulge since 1992. The counterpart candidates were searched based on the X-ray source position in the radius of 3."9. Optical light curves of the candidates comprise a full variety of variability types: spotted stars, pulsating red giants (potentially secondary stars of symbiotic variables), cataclysmic variables, eclipsing binary systems, irregular non-periodic objects including an AGN (GRS 1734-292). Additionally, we find that positions of 19 non-variable stars brighter than 16.5 mag in the OGLE databases are so well aligned with the X-ray positions (<0."75) that these objects are also likely optical counterparts to the GBS X-ray sources. We provide the OGLE astrometric and photometric information for all selected objects and their preliminary classifications. Photometry of the candidates is available from the OGLE Internet archive, http://ogle.astrouw.edu.pl
Near-infrared counterparts of Chandra X-ray sources toward the Galactic Center  [PDF]
Curtis DeWitt,Reba M. Bandyopadhyay,Stephen S. Eikenberry,Robert Blum,Knut Olsen,Kris Sellgren,Ata Sarajedini
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/721/2/1663
Abstract: The Chandra X-ray Observatory has now discovered nearly 10,000 X-ray point sources in the 2 x 0.8 degree region around the Galactic Center (Muno 2009). The sources are likely to be a population of accreting binaries in the Galactic Center, but little else is known of their nature. We obtained JHKs imaging of the 17'x 17' region around Sgr A*, an area containing 4339 of these X-ray sources, with the ISPI camera on the CTIO 4-m telescope. We cross-correlate the Chandra and ISPI catalogs to find potential IR counterparts to the X-ray sources. The extreme IR source crowding in the field means that it is not possible to establish the authenticity of the matches with astrometry and photometry alone. We find 2137 IR/X-ray astrometrically matched sources: statistically we estimate that our catalog contains 289 +/- 13 true matches to soft X-ray sources and 154 +/- 39 matches to hard X-ray sources. However, the fraction of true counterparts to candidate counterparts for hard sources is just 11 %, compared to 60 % for soft sources, making hard source NIR matches particularly challenging for spectroscopic follow-up. We calculate a color-magnitude diagram (CMD) for the matches to hard X-ray sources, and find regions where significant numbers of the IR matches are real. We use their CMD positions to place limits on the absolute Ks band magnitudes of the potential NIR counterparts to hard X-ray sources. We find regions of the counterpart CMD with 9 +/- 3 likely Wolf-Rayet/supergiant binaries (with 4 spectroscopically confirmed in the literature) as well as 44 +/- 13 candidates that could consist of either main sequence high mass X-ray binaries or red giants with an accreting compact companion. (abridged)
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