Abstract:
The interplay between T-duality and supersymmetry in string theory is explored. It is shown that T-duality is always compatible with supersymmetry and simply changes a local realization to a non-local one and vice versa. Non-local realizations become natural using classical parafermions of the underlying conformal field theory. Examples presented include hyper-kahler metrics and the backgrounds for the SU(2) X U(1) and SU(2)/U(1) X U(1) X U(1) exact conformal field theories.

Abstract:
Duality transformations with respect to rotational isometries relate supersymmetric with non-supersymmetric backgrounds in string theory. We find that non-local world-sheet effects have to be taken into account in order to restore supersymmetry at the string level. The underlying superconformal algebra remains the same, but in this case T-duality relates local with non-local realizations of the algebra in terms of parafermions. This is another example where stringy effects resolve paradoxes of the effective field theory. (Contribution to the proceedings of the Trieste conference on S-Duality and Mirror Symmetry; to appear in Nucl Phys B Proc Suppl)

Abstract:
Four-dimensional string backgrounds with local realizations of N = 4 world-sheet supersymmetry have, in the presence of a rotational Killing symmetry, only one complex structure which is an SO(2) singlet, while the other two form an SO(2) doublet. Although N = 2 world-sheet supersymmetry is always preserved under Abelian T-duality transformations, N = 4 breaks down to N = 2 in the rotational case. A non-local realization of N = 4 supersymmetry emerges, instead, with world-sheet parafermions. For SO(3)-invariant metrics of purely rotational type, like the Taub-NUT and the Atiyah-Hitchin metrics, none of the locally realized extended world-sheet supersymmetries can be preserved under non-Abelian duality.

Abstract:
World-sheet and spacetime supersymmetries that are manifest in some string backgrounds may not be so in their T-duals. Nevertheless, they always remain symmetries of the underlying conformal field theory. In previous work the mechanism by which T-duality destroys manifest supersymmetry and gives rise to non-local realizations was found. We give the general conditions for a 2-dim N=1 supersymmetric sigma-model to have non-local and hence non-manifest extended supersymmetry. We then examine T-duality as a mechanism of restoring manifest supersymmetry. This happens whenever appropriate combinations of non-local parafermions of the underlying conformal field theory become local due to non-trivial world-sheet effects. We present, in detail, an example arising from the model SU(2)/U(1) X SL(2,R)/U(1) and obtain a new exact 4-dim axionic instanton, that generalizes the SU(2) X U(1) semi-wormhole, and has manifest spacetime as well as N=4 world-sheet supersymmetry. In addition, general necessary conditions for abelian T-duality to preserve manifest N=4 world-sheet supersymmetry are derived and applied to WZW models based on quaternionic groups. We also prove some theorems for sigma-models with non-local N=4 world-sheet supersymmetry.

Abstract:
I discuss the role of spacetime supersymmetry in the interplay between strong/weak coupling duality and target space duality in string theory which arises in string/string duality. This can be seen via the construction of string soliton solutions which in $N=4$ compactifications of heterotic string theory break more than $1/2$ of the spacetime supersymmetries but whose analogs in $N=2$ and $N=1$ compactifications break precisely $1/2$ of the spacetime supersymmetries. As a result, these solutions may be interpreted as stable solitons in the latter two cases, and correspond to Bogomol'nyi-saturated states in their respective spectra.

Abstract:
Non--Abelian duality in relation to supersymmetry is examined. When the action of the isometry group on the complex structures is non--trivial, extended supersymmetry is realized non--locally after duality, using path ordered Wilson lines. Prototype examples considered in detail are, hyper--Kahler metrics with SO(3) isometry and supersymmetric WZW models. For the latter, the natural objects in the non--local realizations of supersymmetry arising after duality are the classical non--Abelian parafermions. The canonical equivalence of WZW models and their non--Abelian duals with respect to a vector subgroup is also established.

Abstract:
We extend strong/weak coupling duality to string theories without spacetime supersymmetry, and focus on the case of the unique ten-dimensional, nonsupersymmetric, tachyon-free $SO(16)\times SO(16)$ heterotic string. We construct a tachyon-free heterotic string model that interpolates smoothly between this string and the ten-dimensional supersymmetric $SO(32)$ heterotic string, and we construct a dual for this interpolating model. We find that the perturbative massless states of our dual theories precisely match within a certain range of the interpolation. Further evidence for this proposed duality comes from a calculation of the one-loop cosmological constant in both theories, as well as the presence of a soliton in the dual theory. This is therefore the first known duality relation between nonsupersymmetric tachyon-free string theories. Using this duality, we then investigate the perturbative and nonperturbative stability of the $SO(16)\times SO(16)$ string, and present a conjecture concerning its ultimate fate.

Abstract:
It is reviewed how space-time supersymmetry is realized nonlinearly in open superstring theory without making the GSO projection. We show that the world-sheet string dualities, viz. dualities of open-closed strings and of open-open strings, play crucial roles for the existence of 10 dimensional N=2 supersymmetry in a spontaneously broken phase. We also speculate on a possible mechanism of the restoration of supersymmetry from the viewpoint of world-sheet dynamics.

Abstract:
We discuss the spontaneous supersymetry breaking within the low-energy effective supergravity action of four-dimensional superstrings. In particular, we emphasize the non-universality of the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters, the $\mu$-problem and the duality symmetries.

Abstract:
We investigate field theory puzzles occuring in the interplay between supersymmetry and duality in the presense of rotational isometries (also known as non-triholomorphic in hyper-Kahler geometry). We show that T-duality is always compatible with supersymmetry, provided that non-local world-sheet effects are properly taken into account. The underlying superconformal algebra remains the same, and T-duality simply relates local with non-local realizations of it. The non-local realizations have a natural description using parafermion variables of the corresponding conformal field theory. We also comment on the relevance of these ideas to a possible resolution of long standing problems in the quantum theory of black holes.