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The black hole information paradox  [PDF]
Steven B. Giddings
Physics , 1995,
Abstract: A concise survey of the black hole information paradox and its current status is given. A summary is also given of recent arguments against remnants. The assumptions underlying remnants, namely unitarity and causality, would imply that Reissner Nordstrom black holes have infinite internal states. These can be argued to lead to an unacceptable infinite production rate of such black holes in background fields. (To appear in the proceedings of the PASCOS symposium/Johns Hopkins Workshop, Baltimore, MD, March 22-25, 1995).
The Black Hole Information Paradox  [PDF]
Martin B Einhorn
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: After a brief reminscence about work with K. Sato 25 years ago on the monopole problem and inflation, a discussion is given of the black hole information paradox. It is argued that, quite generally, it should be anticipated that the states behind a horizon should be correlated with states outside the horizon, and that this quantum mechanical entanglement is the key to understanding unitarity in this context. This should be equally true of cosmologies with horizons, such as de Sitter space, or of eternal black holes, or of black holes formed by gravitational collapse.
Debunking the black hole information paradox  [PDF]
Andrzej Dragan
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: The vivid debate concerning the paradox of information being lost when objects are swallowed by a black hole is shown to be void. We argue that no information is ever missing for any observer neither located above, nor falling beneath the event horizon. The information is preserved in a classical scenario of eternal black holes and semi-classical one allowing Hawking radiation.
Thought Experiment to resolve the Black Hole Information Paradox  [PDF]
Kay zum Felde
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: We propose a combination of two mechanisms that can resolve the black hole information paradox. The first process is that the black hole shrinks by a first order transition, since we assume the entropy is discontinuous. The black hole disappears. The second type of processes conserves unitarity. We assume that within the black hole micro-reversible quantum mechanical processes take place. These are ordinary particle processes, e.g. the decay of an electron and a positron into two photons.
G?del Incompleteness and the Black Hole Information Paradox  [PDF]
R. Srikanth,Srikanth Hebri
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1007/s11128-008-0089-2
Abstract: Semiclassical reasoning suggests that the process by which an object collapses into a black hole and then evaporates by emitting Hawking radiation may destroy information, a problem often referred to as the black hole information paradox. Further, there seems to be no unique prediction of where the information about the collapsing body is localized. We propose that the latter aspect of the paradox may be a manifestation of an inconsistent self-reference in the semiclassical theory of black hole evolution. This suggests the inadequacy of the semiclassical approach or, at worst, that standard quantum mechanics and general relavity are fundamentally incompatible. One option for the resolution for the paradox in the localization is to identify the G\"odel-like incompleteness that corresponds to an imposition of consistency, and introduce possibly new physics that supplies this incompleteness. Another option is to modify the theory in such a way as to prohibit self-reference. We discuss various possible scenarios to implement these options, including eternally collapsing objects, black hole remnants, black hole final states, and simple variants of semiclassical quantum gravity.
Information paradox and black hole final state for fermions  [PDF]
Doyeol Ahn
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: The black hole information paradox is the result of contradiction between Hawking's semi-classical argument, which dictates that the quantum coherence should be lost during the black hole evaporation and the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, the evolution of pure states to pure states. For over three decades, this contradiction has been one of the major obstacles to the ultimate unification of quantum mechanics and general relativity. Recently, a final-state boundary condition inside the black hole was proposed to resolve this contradiction for bosons. However, no such a remedy exists for fermions yet even though Hawking effect for fermions has been studied for sometime. Here, I report that the black hole information paradox can be resolved for the fermions by imposing a final state boundary condition, which resembles local measurement with post selection. In this scenario, the evaporation can be seen as the post selection determined by random unitary transformation. It is also found that the evaporation processes strongly depends on the boundary condition at the event horizon. This approach may pave the way towards the unified theory for the resolution of information paradox and beyond.
Quantum Gravity and Black Hole Dynamics in 1+1 Dimensions  [PDF]
K. Hamada,A. Tsuchiya
Physics , 1992, DOI: 10.1142/S0217751X93001922
Abstract: We study the quantum theory of 1+1 dimensional dilaton gravity, which is an interesting toy model of the black hole dynamics. The functional measures are explicitly evaluated and the physical state conditions corresponding to the Hamiltonian and the momentum constraints are derived. It is pointed out that the constraints form the Virasoro algebra without central charge. In ADM formalism the measures are very ambiguous, but in our formalism they are explicitly defined. Then the new features which are not seen in ADM formalism come out. A singularity appears at $\df^2 =\kappa (>0) $, where $\kappa =(N-51/2)/12 $ and $ N$ is the number of matter fields. Behind the singularity the quantum mechanical region $\kappa > \df^2 >0 $ extends, where the sign of the kinetic term in the Hamiltonian constraint changes. If $\kappa <0 $, the singularity disappears. We discuss the quantum dynamics of black hole and then give a suggestion for the resolution of the information loss paradox. We also argue the quantization of the spherically symmetric gravitational system in 3+1 dimensions. In appendix the differences between the other quantum dilaton gravities and ours are clarified and our status is stressed.
Gibbs' paradox and black-hole entropy  [PDF]
Claus Kiefer,Gerhard Kolland
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1007/s10714-008-0609-5
Abstract: In statistical mechanics Gibbs' paradox is avoided if the particles of a gas are assumed to be indistinguishable. The resulting entropy then agrees with the empirically tested thermodynamic entropy up to a term proportional to the logarithm of the particle number. We discuss here how analogous situations arise in the statistical foundation of black-hole entropy. Depending on the underlying approach to quantum gravity, the fundamental objects to be counted have to be assumed indistinguishable or not in order to arrive at the Bekenstein--Hawking entropy. We also show that the logarithmic corrections to this entropy, including their signs, can be understood along the lines of standard statistical mechanics. We illustrate the general concepts within the area quantization model of Bekenstein and Mukhanov.
Conservative Model of Black Hole and Lifting of the Information Loss Paradox  [PDF]
Vladimir S. Mashkevich
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: The conservative model of a black hole is advanced. The model incorporates conservation laws such as those of baryon and lepton numbers, which lifts the information loss paradox. A scenario of black hole evaporation is considered. Keywords: entropy, emission, radiation, universe, chemical potential
AdS/CFT duality and the black hole information paradox  [PDF]
Oleg Lunin,Samir D. Mathur
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1016/S0550-3213(01)00620-4
Abstract: Near-extremal black holes are obtained by exciting the Ramond sector of the D1-D5 CFT, where the ground state is highly degenerate. We find that the dual geometries for these ground states have throats that end in a way that is characterized by the CFT state. Below the black hole threshold we find a detailed agreement between propagation in the throat and excitations of the CFT. We study the breakdown of the semiclassical approximation and relate the results to the proposal of gr-qc/0007011 for resolving the information paradox: semiclassical evolution breaks down if hypersurfaces stretch too much during an evolution. We find that a volume V stretches to a maximum throat depth of V/2G.
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