Abstract:
We propose a series of paired spin-singlet quantum Hall states, which exhibit a separation of spin and charge degrees of freedom. The fundamental excitations over these states, which have filling fraction \nu=2/(2m+1) with m an odd integer, are spinons (spin-1/2 and charge zero) or fractional holons (charge +/- 1/(2m+1) and spin zero). The braid statistics of these excitations are non-abelian. The mechanism for the separation of spin and charge in these states is topological: spin and charge excitations are liberated by binding to a vortex in a p-wave pairing condensate. We briefly discuss related, abelian spin-singlet states and possible transitions.

Abstract:
We characterize in detail a wave function conceivable in fractional quantum Hall systems where a spin or equivalent degree of freedom is present. This wave function combines the properties of two previously proposed quantum Hall wave functions, namely the non-Abelian spin-singlet state and the nonunitary Gaffnian wave function. This is a spin-singlet generalization of the spin-polarized Gaffnian, which we call the "spin-singlet Gaffnian" (SSG). In this paper we present evidence demonstrating that the SSG corresponds to the ground state of a certain local Hamiltonian, which we explicitly construct, and, further, we provide a relatively simple analytic expression for the unique ground-state wave functions, which we define as the zero energy eigenstates of that local Hamiltonian. In addition, we have determined a certain nonunitary, rational conformal field theory which provides an underlying description of the SSG and we thus conclude that the SSG is ungapped in the thermodynamic limit. In order to verify our construction, we implement two recently proposed techniques for the analysis of fractional quantum Hall trial states: The "spin dressed squeezing algorithm", and the "generalized Pauli principle".

Abstract:
A theory of electronic properties of a spin-singlet quantum Hall droplet at filling factor $\nu=2$ in a parabolic quantum dot is developed. The excitation spectrum and the stability of the droplet due to the transfer of electrons into the second Landau level at low magnetic fields and due to spin flip at the edge at higher magnetic fields is determined using Hartree-Fock, exact diagonalisation, and spin-density functional methods. We show that above a critical number of electrons $N_c$ the unpolarised $\nu=2$ quantum Hall droplet ceases to be a ground state in favor of spin-polarised phases. We determine the characteristic pattern in the addition and current-amplitude Coulomb blockade spectra associated with the stable $\nu=2$ droplet. We show that the spin transition of the droplet at a critical number of electrons is accompanied by the reversal of the current amplitude modulation at the $\nu=2$ line, as observed in recent experiments.

Abstract:
We formulate a field theory for a class of spin-singlet quantum Hall states (the Haldane-Rezayi state and its variants) which have been proposed for the quantized Hall plateaus observed at the second lowest Landau level. A new essential ingredient is a class of super Chern-Simons field. We show that the known properties of the states are consistently described by it. We also give a 2+1 dimensional hierarchical construction. Implications of the proposal are discussed and a new physical picture of composite particles at the second lowest Landau level emerges.

Abstract:
A rigorous method to solve the Bargmann－Wigner equation for an arbitrary half-integral spin is presented and explicit relativistic wavefunctions for an arbitrary half-integral spin are deduced.

Abstract:
Based on the solution to Bargmann－Wigner equation for a particle with arbitrary half-integral spin, a direct derivation of the projection operator and propagator for a particle with arbitrary half-integral spin is worked out. The projection operator constructed by Behrends and Fronsdal is re-deduced and confirmed and simplified, the general commutation rules and Feynman propagator with additional non-covariant terms for a free particle with arbitrary half-integral spin are derived, and explicit expressions for the propagators for spins 3/2, 5/2 and 7/2 are provided.

Abstract:
In this paper we present a theory of Singlet Quantum Hall Effect (SQHE). We show that the Halperin-Haldane SQHE wave function can be written in the form of a product of a wave function for charged semions in a magnetic field and a wave function for the Chiral Spin Liquid of neutral spin-$\12$ semions. We introduce field-theoretic model in which the electron operators are factorized in terms of charged spinless semions (holons) and neutral spin-$\12$ semions (spinons). Broken time reversal symmetry and short ranged spin correlations lead to $SU(2)_{k=1}$ Chern-Simons term in Landau-Ginzburg action for SQHE phase. We construct appropriate coherent states for SQHE phase and show the existence of $SU(2)$ valued gauge potential. This potential appears as a result of ``spin rigidity" of the ground state against any displacements of nodes of wave function from positions of the particles and reflects the nontrivial monodromy in the presence of these displacements.

Abstract:
We present a new class of non-abelian spin-singlet quantum Hall states, generalizing Halperin's abelian spin-singlet states and the Read-Rezayi non-abelian quantum Hall states for spin-polarized electrons. We label the states by (k,M) with M odd (even) for fermionic (bosonic) states, and find a filling fraction $\nu=2k/(2kM+3)$. The states with M=0 are bosonic spin-singlet states characterized by an SU(3)_k symmetry. We explain how an effective Landau-Ginzburg theory for the SU(3)_2 state can be constructed. In general, the quasi-particles over these new quantum Hall states carry spin, fractional charge and non-abelian quantum statistics.

Abstract:
We construct the hierarchical wave function of the spin-singlet fractional quantum Hall effect, which turns out to satisfy Fock cyclic condition. The spin-statistics relation of the quasi-particles in the spin-singlet fractional quantum Hall effect is also discussed. Then we use particle-hole conjugation to check the wave function.

Abstract:
We show that a large class of bosonic spin-singlet Fractional Quantum Hall model wave-functions and their quasi-hole excitations can be written in terms of Jack polynomials with a prescribed symmetry. Our approach describes new spin-singlet quantum Hall states at filling fraction nu = 2k/(2r-1) and generalizes the (k,r) spin-polarized Jack polynomial states. The NASS and Halperin spin singlet states emerge as specific cases of our construction. The polynomials express many-body states which contain configurations obtained from a root partition through a generalized squeezing procedure involving spin and orbital degrees of freedom. The corresponding generalized Pauli principle for root partitions is obtained, allowing for counting of the quasihole states. We also extract the central charge and quasihole scaling dimension, and propose a conjecture for the underlying CFT of the (k, r) spin-singlet Jack states.