Abstract:
We consider multi-qubit systems and relate quantitatively the problems of generating cluster states with high value of concurrence of assistance, and that of generating states with maximal bipartite entanglement. We prove an upper bound for the concurrence of assistance. We consider dynamics of spin-1/2 systems that model qubits, with different couplings and possible presence of magnetic field to investigate the appearance of the discussed entanglement properties. We find that states with maximal bipartite entanglement can be generated by an XY Hamiltonian, and their generation can be controlled by the initial state of one of the spins. The same Hamiltonian is capable of creating states with high concurrence of assistance with suitably chosen initial state. We show that the production of graph states using the Ising Hamiltonian is controllable via a single-qubit rotation of one spin-1/2 subsystem in the initial multi-qubit state. We shown that the property of Ising dynamics to convert a product state basis into a special maximally entangled basis is temporally enhanced by the application of a suitable magnetic field. Similar basis transformations are found to be feasible in the case of isotropic XY couplings with magnetic field.

Abstract:
We construct a class of algebraic invariants for N-qubit pure states based on bipartite decompositions of the system. We show that they are entanglement monotones, and that they differ from the well know linear entropies of the sub-systems. They therefore capture new information on the non-local properties of multipartite systems.

Abstract:
Bipartite operations underpin both classical communication and entanglement generation. Using a superposition of classical messages, we show that the capacity of a two-qubit operation for error-free entanglement-assisted bidirectional classical communication can not exceed twice the entanglement capability. In addition we show that any bipartite two-qubit operation can increase the communication that may be performed using an ensemble by twice the entanglement capability.

Abstract:
We consider multipartite states of qubits and prove that their bipartite quantum entanglement, as quantified by the concurrence, satisfies a monogamy inequality conjectured by Coffman, Kundu, and Wootters. We relate this monogamy inequality to the concept of frustration of correlations in quantum spin systems.

Abstract:
We calculate exact convergence times to reach random bipartite entanglement for various random protocols. The eigenproblem of a Markovian chain governing the process is mapped to a spin chain, thereby obtaining exact expression for the gap of the Markov chain for any number of qubits. For protocols coupling nearest neighbor qubits and CNOT gate the mapping goes to XYZ model while for U(4) gate it goes to an integrable XY model. For coupling between a random pair of qubits the mapping is to an integrable Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model. In all cases the gap scales inversely with the number of qubits, thereby improving on a recent bound in [Phys.Rev.Lett. 98, 130502 (2007)].

Abstract:
A SWAP operation between different types of qubits of single photons is essential for manipulating hyperentangled photons for a variety of applications. We have implemented an efficient SWAP gate for the momentum and polarization degrees of freedom of single photons. The SWAP gate was utilized in a single-photon two-qubit quantum logic circuit to deterministically transfer momentum entanglement between a pair of down-converted photons to polarization entanglement. The polarization entanglement thus obtained violates Bell's inequality by more than 150 standard deviations.

Abstract:
We consider the coupling of a qubit in a pure state to an environment in an arbitrary state, and characterize the possibility of qubit-environment entanglement generation during the evolution of the joint system, that leads to pure dephasing of the qubit. We give a simple necessary and sufficient condition on the initial density matrix of the environment together with the properties of the interaction, for appearance of qubit-environment entanglement. Any entanglement created turns out to be detectable by the Peres-Horodecki criterion. Furthermore, we show that for a large family of initial environmental states, the appearance of nonzero entanglement with the environment is necessarily accompanied by a change in the state of the environment (i.e. by the back-action of the qubit).

Abstract:
This paper investigates bipartite entanglement of a two-qubit system with anisotropic couplings under an inhomogeneous magnetic field. This work is mainly to investigate the characteristics of a Heisenberg XYZ chain and obtains some meaningful results. By the concept of negativity, it finds that the inhomogeneity of magnetic field may induce entanglement and the critical magnetic field is independent of Jz. The inhomogeneous magnetic field can increase the value of critical magnetic field Bc. It also finds that the magnetic field not only suppresses the entanglement but also can induce it to revival for some time.

Abstract:
We propose to use ferromagnetic systems for entanglement generation and distribution together with perfect state transfer between distant parties in a qubit chain. The scheme relies on an effective 2-qubit dynamics, realized by leaving two empty sites in a uniformly filled chain. This allows long-range interacting qubit chains to serve as quantum channels for both tasks with optimal performances. Remarkably, the entanglement between sender and receiver sites is independent of both the transmission distance and of system size. This property opens new perspectives for short and mid-range quantum communication with qubit chains.

Abstract:
We study the entanglement of a two-qubit system in a superconducting quantum dot (SQD) lattice in the presence of magnetic flux and gate voltage inhomogeneity. We observe a universal feature for the half-integer magnetic flux quantum which completely washes out the entanglement of the system both at zero and finite temperature. We observe that the ground state is always in a maximally entangled Bell state when there is no inhomogeneity in gate voltage in the superconducting quantum dot lattice. We find an important constraint in magnetic flux for ground state entanglement. We also observe few behavior of entanglement at finite temperature is in contrast with the zero temperature behavior.