Abstract:
In many experiments involving conversion of quantum degenerate atomic gases into molecular dimers via a Feshbach resonance, an external magnetic field is linearly swept from above the resonance to below resonance. In the adiabatic limit, the fraction of atoms converted into molecules is independent of the functional form of the sweep and is predicted to be 100%. However, for non-adiabatic sweeps through resonance, Landau-Zener theory predicts that a linear sweep will result in a negligible production of molecules. Here we employ a genetic algorithm to determine the functional time dependence of the magnetic field that produces the maximum number of molecules for sweep times that are comparable to the period of resonant atom-molecule oscillations, $2\pi\Omega_{Rabi}^{-1}$. The optimal sweep through resonance indicates that more than 95% of the atoms can be converted into molecules for sweep times as short as $2\pi\Omega_{Rabi}^{-1}$ while the linear sweep results in a conversion of only a few percent. We also find that the qualitative form of the optimal sweep is independent of the strength of the two-body interactions between atoms and molecules and the width of the resonance.

Abstract:
We consider a mixture of single-component bosonic and fermionic atoms with an interspecies interaction that is varied using a Feshbach resonance. By performing a mean-field analysis of a two-channel model, which describes both narrow and broad Feshbach resonances, we find an unexpectedly rich phase diagram at zero temperature: Bose-condensed and non-Bose-condensed phases form a variety of phase-separated states that are accompanied by both critical and tricritical points. We discuss the implications of our results for the experimentally observed collapse of Bose-Fermi mixtures on the attractive side of the Feshbach resonance, and we make predictions for future experiments on Bose-Fermi mixtures close to a Feshbach resonance.

Abstract:
In this paper, properties of a homogeneous Bose gas with a Feshbach resonance are studied in the dilute region at zero temperature. The stationary state contains condensations of atoms and molecules. The ratio of the molecule density to the atom density is $\pi na^3$. There are two types of excitations, molecular excitations and atomic excitations. Atomic excitations are gapless, consistent with the traditional theory of a dilute Bose gas. The molecular excitation energy is finite in the long wavelength limit as observed in recent experiments on $^{85}$Rb. In addition, the decay process of the condensate is studied. The coefficient of the three-body recombination rate is about 140 times larger than that of a Bose gas without a Feshbach resonance, in reasonably good agreement with the experiment on $^{23}$Na.

Abstract:
We predict the resonance enhanced magnetic field dependence of atom-dimer relaxation and three-body recombination rates in a $^{87}$Rb Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) close to 1007 G. Our exact treatments of three-particle scattering explicitly include the dependence of the interactions on the atomic Zeeman levels. The Feshbach resonance distorts the entire diatomic energy spectrum causing interferences in both loss phenomena. Our two independent experiments confirm the predicted recombination loss over a range of rate constants that spans four orders of magnitude.

Abstract:
We study a dilute mixture of degenerate bosons and fermions across a Feshbach resonance of the Fermi-Fermi scattering length $a_F$. This scattering length is renormalized by the boson-induced interaction between fermions and its value is crucial to determine the phase diagram of the system. For the mixture in a box and a positive Bose-Fermi scattering length, we show that there are three possibilities: a single uniform mixed phase, a purely fermionic phase coexisting with a mixed phase, and a purely fermionic phase coexisting with a purely bosonic one. As $1/a_F$ is increased from a negative value to the Feshbach resonance ($1/a_F=0$) the region of pure separation increases and the other two regions are strongly reduced. Above the Feshbach resonance ($1/a_F>0$), pairs of Fermi atoms become Bose-condensed molecules. We find that these molecules are fully spatially separated from the bosonic atoms when $1/a_F$ exceedes a critical value. For a negative Bose-Fermi scattering length we deduce the condition for collapse, which coincides with the onset of dynamical instability of the fully mixed phase. We consider also the mixture in a harmonic trap and determine the conditions for partial demixing, full demixing and collapse. The experimental implications of our results are investigated by analyzing mixtures of $^6$Li--$^{23}$Na and $^{40}$K--$^{87}$Rb atoms.

Abstract:
A Feshbach resonance in the s-wave scattering length occurs if the energy of the two atoms in the incoming open channel is close to the energy of a bound state in a coupled closed channel. Starting from the microscopic hamiltonian that describes this situation, we derive the effective atom-molecule theory for a Bose gas near a Feshbach resonance. In order to take into account all two-body processes, we have to dress the bare couplings of the atom-molecule model with ladder diagrams. This results in a quantum field theory that exactly reproduces the scattering amplitude of the atoms and the bound-state energy of the molecules. Since these properties are incorporated at the quantum level, the theory can be applied both above and below the critical temperature of the gas. Moreover, making use of the true interatomic potentials ensures that no divergences are encountered at any stage of the calculation. We also present the mean-field theory for the Bose-Einstein condensed phase of the gas.

Abstract:
We present a simple example of quantum control in Bose-Einstein condensates via Feshbach resonance. By tuning an initially positive scattering length to zero, it is possible to generate oscillatory motion of the condensate that results from quantum interference. The density oscillation is accompanied by a periodic enhancement of the quantum mechanical squeezing of the amplitude quadrature.

Abstract:
Gross-Pitaevskii equation with gain is used to model Bose Einstein condensation (BEC) fed by the surrounding thermal cloud. It is shown that the number of atoms continuously injected into BEC from the reservoir can be controlled by applying the external magnetic field via Feshbach resonance.

Abstract:
We show that in an atomic Bose gas near a Feshbach resonance a quantum phase transition occurs between a phase with only a molecular Bose-Einstein condensate and a phase with both an atomic and a molecular Bose-Einstein condensate. We show that the transition is characterized by an Ising order parameter. We also determine the phase diagram of the gas as a function of magnetic field and temperature: the quantum critical point extends into a line of finite temperature Ising transitions.

Abstract:
We study the groundstates of rotating Bose gases when interactions are affected by a nearby Feshbach resonance. We show that exact groundstates at high angular momentum can be found analytically for a general and realistic model for the resonant interactions. We identify parameter regimes where the exact groundstates are exotic fractional quantum Hall states, the excitations of which obey non-abelian exchange statistics.