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Where has all the neutral hydrogen gone?  [PDF]
M. J. Disney,R. F. Minchin
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: Our extremely deep survey for extragalactic HI (HIDEEP) finds no intergalactic gas clouds, and no galaxies with HI at inferred global column-densities below 10^20 cm^-2 when we could have detected such objects down to a completeness limit of 4 x 10^18 cm^-2. We speculate that low surface-density hydrogen is either ionised or locked up in ``frozen discs'', i.e. structures where the local Ly-alpha is insufficient to excite the 21-cm transition to a spin-temperature above the cosmic background. Such ``frozen discs'' might be responsible for many QSOALSs.
The Disk-Halo Connection and Where Has All The Gas Gone?  [PDF]
Joel N. Bregman
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: The wealth of data in the past decades, and especially in the past 15 years has transformed our picture of the gas around the Milky Way and other spiral galaxies. There is good evidence for extraplanar gas that is a few kpc in height and is seen in all gaseous phases: neutral; warm atomic; and hot, X-ray emitting gas. This medium is seen not only around the Milky Way, but other spiral galaxies and it is related to the star formation rate, so it is likely produced by the activity in the disk through a galactic fountain. More extended examples of halo gas are seen, such as the HVC around the Milky Way and around M31. This gas is typically 10-20 kpc from the galaxy and is not seen beyond 50 kpc. This gas is most likely being accreted. A hot dilute halo (1E6 K) is present with a similar size, although its size is poorly determined. An ongoing controversy surrounds the relative amounts of outflow from the disk and accretion onto galaxies such as the Milky Way. There is good evidence for accretion of cold material onto the Milky Way and other galaxies, but it is not clear if there is enough to modify the gas content and star formation properties in the disk. The reservoir of accretion material is as yet unidentified. Some of these findings may be related to the issue that galaxies are baryon-poor: their baryon to dark matter ratio is well below the cosmological value. The absence of baryons may be due to extremely violent outflow events in the early stages of galaxy formation. We may be able to understand this stage of galaxy evolution by applying our deepening understanding of our local disk-halo environment.
Where Have All the Teachers Gone?  [cached]
Mark Fetler
Education Policy Analysis Archives , 1997,
Abstract: A rising need for teachers is projected for California and the nation during the next decade. Sound policy for teacher preparation should not only foster a capable workforce, it should also assure that the supply of qualified teachers balances with employment demand. A conceptual model is proposed to describe the flow of individuals through teacher preparation programs and the workplace. In California the workforce is projected to grow by thirty percent over the next ten years, stimulating the demand for teachers. At present the number of newly credentialed teachers exceeds the number hired. However, the apparent abundance masks an oversupply of teachers in some curricular and geographic areas and shortages elsewhere. Evidence for a lack of balance between supply and demand is found in an upward trend of emergency hiring of teachers who do not meet all requirements for a credential and low employment rates for first-time college and university prepared teachers. The asymmetry between supply and demand could be redressed partly through better retention of working teachers and closer coordination of preparation programs with the needs of schools in their service areas.
Where have all the bishops gone?
JE Wehrmeyer
Acta Theologica , 2009,
Abstract: This paper investigates how the Greek term episkopo`~ and its related variants are translated in English Bible translations. From early translations to the middle of the 20th century, “bishop” was the preferred translation equivalent. However, translations done in the latter half of the 20th century prefer the more generic term “overseer” or a functional equivalent. This apparent neutrality in selecting a more general term has, however, theological implications and may actually violate the principle of sola scriptura. The paper shows that the New Testament episkopo`~ functions as a term with meanings similar to its secular use in ancient times as well as its use in the Septuagint. It is suggested that the term boldly declares the colonisation of the kingdoms of men by the kingdom of God. Therefore the translation equivalent also needs to be a term with equivalent semantic content.
Biotechnology entrepreneurship - where no research has gone before
Michael L Salgaller, Francesco M Marincola
Journal of Translational Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-8-102
Abstract: Increasingly, universities and medical research centers are making technology transfer and development - such as filing patents and establishing formal industry relationships - a factor in tenure and promotion evaluation; the new millennia version of publish or perish. The out-licensing and commercialization of life science technologies are becoming valued parts of the academic career ladder. For example, North Carolina State University tenure and promotion process includes technology transfer to industry and filing patents - as part of more general definition of generating, contributing to, or disseminating knowledge[1]. One study found a direct relationship between the granting of tenure and the type of industry partnership necessary for a therapy or device to evolve from bench to bedside[2].On a related note, another growing trend is the number of scientists deciding to take a more active, hands-on role in technology development - either by serving a prominent role in companies exploiting their research, or deciding to become entrepreneurs and start their own companies. The decision to leave academia, or at least divert significant energy and time, to be an entrepreneur is too often made without sufficient information. Yet, this ignorance is largely the fault of the system - rather than the scientist. The number of universities offering MD/MBA or PhD/MBA combined programs is increasing. Still, since few graduate programs historically offered any business, legal, or financial courses in their curricula, the vast majority of active life scientists have any training in, or exposure to, entrepreneurship.From Science to Solutions [3] provides a real-world introduction to starting and growing life science companies, as well as useful material for medical researchers interested in getting their technologies to as many patients as possible. Founding a company - or playing an active role (e.g., serving as scientific director or member of the scientific advisory board - tr
Where Have All the Crop Phenotypes Gone?  [PDF]
Dani Zamir
PLOS Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001595
Abstract: Summary In crop genetics and breeding research, phenotypic data are collected for each plant genotype, often in multiple locations and field conditions, in search of the genomic regions that confer improved traits. But what is happening to all of these phenotypic data? Currently, virtually none of the data generated from the hundreds of phenotypic studies conducted each year are being made publically available as raw data; thus there is little we can learn from past experience when making decisions about how to breed better crops for the future. This ongoing loss of phenotypic information, particularly about crop productivity, must be stopped if we are to meet the considerable challenge of increasing food production sufficiently to meet the needs of a growing world population. Here I present a road map for developing and implementing an information network to share data on crop plant phenotypes.
Where have all the black holes gone?  [PDF]
T. Beckert,W. J. Duschl
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20020438
Abstract: We have calculated stationary models for accretion disks around super-massive black holes in galactic nuclei. Our models show that below a critical mass flow rate of ~3 10**-3 M_Edd advection will dominate the energy budget while above that rate all the viscously liberated energy is radiated. The radiation efficiency declines steeply below that critical rate. This leads to a clear dichotomy between AGN and normal galaxies which is not so much given by differences in the mass flow rate but by the radiation efficiency. At very low mass accretion rates below 5 10**-5 M_Edd synchrotron emission and Bremsstrahlung dominate the SED, while above 2 10**-4 M Edd the inverse Compton radiation from synchrotron seed photons produce flat to inverted SEDs from the radio to X-rays. Finally we discuss the implications of these findings for AGN duty cycles and the long-term AGN evolution.
Where have all the GPs gone – where will they go? Study of Finnish GPs  [cached]
Sumanen Markku,Aine Tiina,Halila Hannu,Heikkil? Teppo
BMC Family Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-13-121
Abstract: Background In this paper a specialist in general practice is referred to as a general practitioner (GP). In Finland only half of all GPs work as a health centre physician. The present aim was to establish what the working places of specializing and specialized physicians in general practice are, and where they assume they will work in the future. Methods The study population comprised 5,357 physicians licensed in Finland during the years 1977–1996. Altogether 2,956 questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 55.2%. Those either specializing (GP trainees, n=133) or already having specialized (GPs, n=426) in general practice were included in the study. Respondents were asked what kind of physician’s work they would most preferably do. They were further asked what work they assumed they would be doing in the year 2020. Results Altogether 72% were working in public primary health centres and 14% in the private sector. Of GPs 53% and of GP trainees 70% would most preferably work in health centres. Of GPs 14% would most preferably work as private practitioners and 9% as occupational health physicians. Sixteen per cent assumed they would be working as private practitioners and 35% assumed they would be retired in the year 2020. Of GP trainees 57% assumed they would be working as health centre physicians in 2020. Conclusions According to the present findings many experienced GPs will leave their work as a health centre physician. Moreover, several GP trainees do not consider health centre physician’s work as a long-term career option. These trends may in the future reflect a recruiting problem in many primary health centres.
The Interstellar Oxygen Crisis, or Where Have All the Oxygen Atoms Gone?  [PDF]
Shu Wang,Aigen Li,B. W. Jiang
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1900
Abstract: The interstellar medium (ISM) seems to have a significant surplus of oxygen which was dubbed as the "O crisis": independent of the adopted interstellar reference abundance, the total number of O atoms depleted from the gas phase far exceeds that tied up in solids by as much as ~160ppm of O/H. Recently, it has been hypothesized that the missing O could be hidden in micrometer-sized H2O ice grains. We examine this hypothesis by comparing the infrared (IR) extinction and far-IR emission arising from these grains with that observed in the Galactic diffuse ISM. We find that it is possible for the diffuse ISM to accommodate ~160ppm of O/H in micron-sized H2O ice grains without violating the observational constraints including the absence of the 3.1micron O-H absorption feature. More specifically, H2O ice grains of radii ~4micron and O/H = 160 ppm are capable of accounting for the observed flat extinction at ~ 3-8 micron and produce no excessive emission in the far-IR. These grains could be present in the diffuse ISM through rapid exchange of material between dense molecular clouds where they form and diffuse clouds where they are destroyed by photosputtering.
Where Have All the Young Ones Gone: Implications for the Nursing Workforce
Vicki Drury,Karen Francis,Ysanne Chapman
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2009,
Abstract: The global nursing shortage, coupled with an ageing nursing workforce, has placed significant pressure on the Australian Government to implement strategies to meet future nursing demands as well as develop strategies to manage the current crisis. In response, the Australian government funded additional undergraduate places at universities between 2002 and 2008 and offered financial incentives for nurses who were not currently employed to return to practice. Many undergraduate places at the university (in all disciplines) have been taken up by mature-aged students. The high percentage of graduating, mature-aged nursing students is helping to alleviate the current nursing shortage, but runs the risk of exacerbating the shortage projected to occur around the year 2020. This article postulates that graduating this high percentage of mature-aged nursing students is making a significant contribution to nursing today, helping to alleviate the current nursing shortage. However, it runs the risk of exacerbating the shortage projected to occur around the year 2020. In this article the authors explore the current nursing shortage and the changing educational opportunities that affect recruitment of mature-aged students into tertiary-based nursing programs. Recommendations are provided for appropriate succession planning for the future.
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