Abstract:
We investigate a short (~1.5{\mu}m) partially-corrugated tapered waveguide structure for mode coupling from a silicon micro-slab to a plasmonic nano-gap waveguide at the optical communication frequency. More than 80% transmission efficiency is reported numerically for the first time. The result indicates that the corrugated waveguide structure should not only be helpful for realizing full on-chip silicon plasmonic devices but also a good choice for mode coupling enhancement from dielectric waveguides to plasmonic waveguides. Meanwhile, we point out that the coupling mechanism reported here is different from that achieved by exciting surface plasmon polaritions (SPPs) at metal surfaces reported in [17] and [18].

Abstract:
The fundamental guided dispersion characteristics of guided light in a subwavelength dielectric slit channel embedded by two different plasmonic metals are investigated when varying the gap width. As a result, an overall and salient picture of the guided dispersion characteristics is obtained over a wide spectrum range below and above the plasma frequencies of the two different plasmonic metals, which is important preliminary information for analyzing this type of subwavelength waveguide. In particular, the effects of using two different metals on the guided mode dispersions are emphasized in comparison with the effects of using the same plasmonic metal cladding.

Abstract:
The extremely local electric field enhancement and light confinement is demonstrated in dielectric waveguide with corner and gap geometry. The numerical results reveal the local electric field enhancement in the vicinity of the apex of fan-shaped waveguide. Classical electromagnetic theory predicts that the field enhancement and confinement abilities increase with decreasing radius of rounded corner ($r$) and gap ($g$), and show singularity for infinitesimal $r$ and $g$. For practical parameters with $r=g=10\,\mathrm{nm}$, the mode area of opposing apex-to-apex fan-shaped waveguides can be as small as $4\times10^{-3}A_{0}$ ($A_{0}=\lambda^{2}/4$), far beyond the diffraction limit. This way of breaking diffraction limit with no loss outperforms plasmonic waveguides, where light confinement is realized at the cost of huge intrinsic loss in the metal. Furthermore, we propose a structure with dielectric bow-tie antenna on a silicon-on-insulator waveguide, whose field enhancement increases by one order. The lossless dielectric corner and gap structures offer an alternative method to enhance the light-matter interaction without metal nano-structure, and will find applications in quantum electrodynamics, sensors and nano-particle trapping.

Abstract:
A technique based on using optical fiber taper waveguides for probing single emitters embedded in thin dielectric membranes is assessed through numerical simulations. For an appropriate membrane geometry, photoluminescence collection efficiencies in excess of 10 % are predicted, exceeding the efficiency of standard free-space collection by an order of magnitude. Our results indicate that these fiber taper waveguides offer excellent prospects for performing efficient spectroscopy of single emitters embedded in thin films, such as a single self-assembled quantum dot in a semiconductor membrane.

Abstract:
We demonstrate that surface plasmon polaritons can be guided by nanometer scale dielectric waveguides. In a test experiment plasmons were coupled to a curved 3 micrometer radius dielectric stripe, which was 200 nm wide and 138 nm thick using a parabolic surface coupler. This experiment demonstrates that using surface plasmon polaritons the scale of optoelectronic devices based on dielectric waveguides can be shrunk by at least an order of magnitude.

Abstract:
The propagation properties of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) modes in nanoscale narrow metallic structures: gap, channel, and rectangular-hole waveguides, are analyzed by the complex effective dielectric constant approximation. The results show that all the SPP modes exist below the critical frequency where the real part of metal permittivity is negative unity. It is found that both cutoff frequency and cutoff height exist in channel waveguide and rectangularhole waveguide. The channel and rectangular-hole waveguides have different propagation properties at cutoffs due to their different cutoff conditions. Compared with the gap waveguide, the channel waveguide has shorter propagation length and better confinement when the operation frequency is near the critical frequency, but has longer propagation length and worse confinement when the operation frequency is far from the critical frequency. Among the three waveguides, the rectangular-hole waveguide has the best confinement factor and the shortest propagation length. The comprehensive analysis for the gap, channel, and rectangular-hole waveguides can provide some guidelines in the design of subwavelength optical devices.

Abstract:
A two-dimensional photonic crystal model with a periodic square dielectric background is proposed. The photonic band modulation effects due to the two-dimensional periodic background are investigated in detail. It is found that periodic modulation of the dielectric background greatly alters photonic band structures, especially for the Epolarization modes. The number, width and position of the photonic band gaps sensitively depend on the dielectric constants of the two-dimensional periodic background. Complete band gaps are found, and the dependence of the widths of these gaps on the structural and material parameters of the two alternating rods/holes is studied.

Abstract:
We perform advanced radiation leakage microscopy of routing dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguiding structures. By direct plane imaging and momentum-space spectroscopy, we analyze the energy transfer between coupled waveguides as a function of gap distance and reveal the momentum distribution of curved geometries. Specifically, we observed a clear degeneracy lift of the effective indices for strongly interacting waveguides in agreement with coupled-mode theory. We use momentum-space representations to discuss the effect of curvature on dielectric-loaded waveguides. The experimental images are successfully reproduced by a numerical and an analytical model of the mode propagating in a curved plasmonic waveguide.

Abstract:
We study the nonlinear waves propagating in metal slot waveguides with a Kerr-type dielectric core. We develop two independent semi-analytical models to describe the properties of such waveguides. Using those models we compute the dispersion curves for the first ten modes of a nonlinear slot waveguide. For symmetric waveguides we find symmetric, antisymmetric, and asymmetric modes which are grouped in two families. In addition, we study the influence of the slot width on the first symmetric and asymmetric modes, and we show that the dispersion curve of the first asymmetric mode is invariant with respect to the slot width for high propagation constant values and we provide analytical approximations of this curve.

Abstract:
Metasheet structures together with bulk composite dielectric layers can be used for antenna radomes, absorbers, and band gap structures. Transmission (T) and reflection (G) coefficients for a plane wave incident at any angle upon a metasheet embedded in a dielectric layer are considered. These metasheets are either patch-type or an aperture-type, and they can be either single-layered or multi-layered. To calculate T and Γ for a patch-type metasheet, a concise unified matrix approach is derived using the Generalized Sheet Transition Conditions (GSTC). The Babinet duality principle is utilized to get T and G for single-layered aperture-type metasheets (as complementary to the patch-type ones) at an arbitrary angle of incidence. The T-matrix approach is applied to calculate characteristics of multilayered metasheet structures containing a cascade of metasheets and dielectric slabs. In this paper, the minimum distance for neglecting higher-order evanescent mode interactions between the metasheets has been determined. Computed results based on the proposed analytical approach are compared with the fullwave numerical simulations. The analytical results are verified for satisfying the energy balance condition.