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Propagation of sausage soliton in the solar lower atmosphere observed by Hinode/SOT  [PDF]
T. V. Zaqarashvili,V. Kukhianidze,M. L. Khodachenko
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-3933.2010.00838.x
Abstract: Acoustic waves and pulses propagating from the solar photosphere upwards may quickly develop into shocks due to the rapid decrease of atmospheric density. However, if they propagate along a magnetic flux tube, then the nonlinear steepening may be balanced by tube dispersion effects. This may result in the formation of sausage soliton. The aim of this letter is to report an observational evidence of sausage soliton in the solar chromosphere. Time series of Ca II H line obtained at the solar limb with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on the board of Hinode is analysed. Observations show an intensity blob, which propagates from 500 km to 1700 km above the solar surface with the mean apparent speed of 35 km s$^{-1}$. The speed is much higher than expected local sound speed, therefore the blob can not be a simple pressure pulse. The blob speed, length to width ratio and relative intensity correspond to slow sausage soliton propagating along a magnetic tube. The blob width is increased with height corresponding to the magnetic tube expansion in the stratified atmosphere. Propagation of the intensity blob can be the first observational evidence of slow sausage soliton in the solar atmosphere.
The Evershed Effect with SOT/Hinode  [PDF]
Kiyoshi Ichimoto,SOT/Hinode-team
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-02859-5_14
Abstract: The Solar Optical Telescope onboard Hinode revealed the fine-scale structure of the Evershed flow and its relation to the filamentary structures of the sunspot penumbra. The Evershed flow is confined in narrow channels with nearly horizontal magnetic fields, embedded in a deep layer of the penumbral atmosphere. It is a dynamic phenomenon with flow velocity close to the photospheric sound speed. Individual flow channels are associated with tiny upflows of hot gas (sources) at the inner end and downflows (sinks) at the outer end. SOT/Hinode also discovered ``twisting'' motions of penumbral filaments, which may be attributed to the convective nature of the Evershed flow. The Evershed effect may be understood as a natural consequence of thermal convection under a strong, inclined magnetic field. Current penumbral models are discussed in the lights of these new Hinode observations.
Seismology of solar spicules based on Hinode/SOT observations  [PDF]
V. Abbasvand,H. Ebadi,Z. Fazel
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We analyze the time series of Ca ii H-line obtained from Hinode/SOT on the solar limb. The time-distance analysis shows that the axis of spicule undergoes quasi-periodic transverse displacement. We determined the period of transverse displacement as ~40-150 s and the mean amplitude as ~ 0.1-0.5 arcsec. For the oscillation wavelength of $\lambda$ ~ 1/0.06 arcsec ~ 11500 km, the estimated kink speed is ~ 13-83 km/s. We obtained the magnetic field strength in spicules as B_0 = 2 - 12.5 G and the energy flux as 7 - 227 J/m^-2s.
On the Area Expansion of Magnetic Flux-Tubes in Solar Active Regions  [PDF]
Jaroslav Dudik,Elena Dzifcakova,Jonathan W. Cirtain
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/796/1/20
Abstract: We calculated the 3D distribution of the area expansion factors in a potential magnetic field extrapolated from the high-resolution \textit{Hinode}/SOT magnetogram of a quiescent active region NOAA 11482. Retaining only closed loops within the computational box, we show that the distribution of area expansion factors show significant structure. Loop-like structures characterized by locally lower values of the expansion factor are embedded in a smooth background. These loop-like flux-tubes have squashed cross-sections and expand with height. The distribution of the expansion factors show overall increase with height, allowing an active region core characterized by low values of the expansion factor to be distinguished. The area expansion factors obtained from extrapolation of the SOT magnetogram are compared to those obtained from an approximation of the observed magnetogram by a series of 134 submerged charges. This approximation retains the general flux distribution in the observed magnetogram, but removes the small-scale structure in both the approximated magnetogram and the 3D distribution of the area expansion factors. We argue that the structuring of the expansion factor can be a significant ingredient in producing the observed structuring of the solar corona. However, due to the potential approximation used, these results may not be applicable to loops exhibiting twist neither to active regions producing significant flares.
Observations of Chromospheric Anemone Jets with Hinode SOT and Hida Ca II Spectroheliogram  [PDF]
Satoshi Morita,Kazunari Shibata,Satoru Ueno,Kiyoshi Ichimoto,Reizaburo Kitai,Ken-ichi Otsuji
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/62.4.901
Abstract: We present the first simultaneous observations of chromospheric "anemone" jets in solar active regions with Hinode SOT Ca II H broadband filetergram and Ca II K spetroheliogram on the Domeless Solar Telescope (DST) at Hida Observatory. During the coordinated observation, 9 chromospheric anemone jets were simultaneously observed with the two instruments. These observations revealed three important features, i.e.: (1) the jets are generated in the lower chromosphere, (2) the length and lifetime of the jets are 0.4-5 Mm and 40-320 sec, (3) the apparent velocity of the jets with Hinode SOT are 3-24 km/s, while Ca II K3 component at the jets show blueshifts (in 5 events) in the range of 2- 6 km/s. The chromospheric anemone jets are associated with mixed polarity regions which are either small emerging flux regions or moving magnetic features. It is found that the Ca II K line often show red or blue asymmetry in K2/K1 component: the footpoint of the jets associated with emerging flux regions often show redshift (2-16 km/s), while the one with moving magnetic features show blueshift (around 5 km/s). Detailed analysis of magnetic evolution of the jet foaming regions revealed that the reconnection rate (or canceling rate) of the total magnetic flux at the footpoint of the jets are of order of 10^{16} Mx/s, and the resulting magnetic energy release rate (1.1-10) x 10^{24} erg/s, with the total energy release (1-13) x 10^{26} erg for the duration of the magnetic cancellations, 130s. These are comparable to the estimated total energy, 10^{26} erg, in a single chromospheric anemone jet. An observation-based physical model of the jet is presented. The relation between chromospheric anemone jets and Ellerman bombs is discussed.
Transverse oscillations of loops with coronal rain observed by Hinode/SOT  [PDF]
Patrick Antolin,Erwin Verwichte
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/736/2/121
Abstract: The condensations composing coronal rain, falling down along loop-like structures observed in cool chromospheric lines such as H$\alpha$ and \ion{Ca}{2} H, have long been a spectacular phenomenon of the solar corona. However, considered a peculiar sporadic phenomenon, it has not received much attention. This picture is rapidly changing due to recent high resolution observations with instruments such as \textit{Hinode}/SOT, CRISP of \textit{SST} and \textit{SDO}. Furthermore, numerical simulations have shown that coronal rain is a loss of thermal equilibrium of loops linked to footpoint heating. This result has highlighted the importance that coronal rain can play in the field of coronal heating. In this work, we further stress the importance of coronal rain by showing the role it can play in the understanding of the coronal magnetic field topology. We analyze \textit{Hinode}/SOT observations in the \ion{Ca}{2} H line of a loop in which coronal rain puts in evidence in-phase transverse oscillations of multiple strand-like structures. The periods, amplitudes, transverse velocities and phase velocities are calculated, allowing an estimation of the energy flux of the wave and the coronal magnetic field inside the loop through means of coronal seismology. We discuss the possible interpretations of the wave as either standing or propagating torsional Alfv\'en or fast kink waves. An estimate of the plasma beta parameter of the condensations indicates a condition that may allow the often observed separation and elongation processes of the condensations. We also show that the wave pressure from the transverse wave can be responsible for the observed low downward acceleration of coronal rain.
Spicules Intensity Oscillations in SOT/HINODE Observations  [PDF]
E. Tavabi,A. Ajabshirizadeh,A. R. Ahangarzadeh Maralani,S. Zeighami
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1007/s12036-015-9335-z
Abstract: Aims. We study the coherency of solar spicules intensity oscillations with increasing height above the solar limb in quiet Sun, active Sun and active region using observations from HINODE/SOT. Existence of coherency up to transition region strengthens the theory of the coronal heating and solar wind through energy transport and photospheric oscillations. Methods. Using time sequences from the HINODE/SOT in Ca II H line, we investigate oscillations found in intensity profiles at different heights above the solar limb. We use the Fourier and wavelet analysis to measure dominant frequency peaks of intensity at the heights, and phase difference between oscillations at two certain heights, to find evidence for the coherency of the oscillations. Finally, we can calculate the energy and the mass transported by spicules providing energy equilibrium, according to density values of spicules at different heights. To extend this work, we can also consider coherent oscillations at different latitudes and suggest to study of oscillations which may be obtained from observations of other satellites.
Acoustic Events in the Solar Atmosphere from Hinode/SOT NFI observations  [PDF]
J. -M. Malherbe,T. Roudier,M. Rieutord,T. Berger,Z. Frank
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s11207-012-9954-3
Abstract: We investigate the properties of acoustic events (AEs), defined as spatially concentrated and short duration energy flux, in the quiet sun using observations of a 2D field of view (FOV) with high spatial and temporal resolution provided by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard \textit{Hinode}. Line profiles of Fe \textsc{i} 557.6 nm were recorded by the Narrow band Filter Imager (NFI) on a $82" \times 82"$ FOV during 75 min with a time step of 28.75 s and 0.08$"$ pixel size. Vertical velocities were computed at three atmospheric levels (80, 130 and 180 km) using the bisector technique allowing the determination of energy flux in the range 3-10 mHz using two complementary methods (Hilbert transform and Fourier power spectra). Horizontal velocities were computed using local correlation tracking (LCT) of continuum intensities providing divergences. The net energy flux is upward. In the range 3-10 mHz, a full FOV space and time averaged flux of 2700 W m$^{-2}$ (lower layer 80-130 km) and 2000 W m$^{-2}$ (upper layer 130-180 km) is concentrated in less than 1% of the solar surface in the form of narrow (0.3$"$) AE. Their total duration (including rise and decay) is of the order of $10^{3}$ s. Inside each AE, the mean flux is $1.6 10^{5}$ W m$^{-2}$ (lower layer) and $1.2 10^{5}$ W m$^{-2}$ (upper). Each event carries an average energy (flux integrated over space and time) of $2.5 10^{19}$ J (lower layer) to $1.9 10^{19}$ J (upper). More than $10^{6}$ events could exist permanently on the Sun, with a birth and decay rate of 3500 s$^{-1}$. Most events occur in intergranular lanes, downward velocity regions, and areas of converging motions.
Velocity vectors of a quiescent prominence observed by Hinode/SOT and the MSDP (Meudon)  [PDF]
B. Schmieder,R. Chandra,A. Berlicki,P. Mein
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200913477
Abstract: The dynamics of prominence fine structures is a challenge to understand the formation of cool plasma prominence embedded in the hot corona. Recent observations from the high resolution Hinode/SOT telescope allow us to compute velocities perpendicularly to the line-of-sight or transverse velocities. Combining simultaneous observations obtained in H-alpha with Hinode/SOT and the MSDP spectrograph operating in the Meudon solar tower we derive the velocity vectors of a quiescent prominence. The velocities perpendicular to the line-of-sight are measured by time slice technique, the Dopplershifts by the bisector method. The Dopplershifts of bright threads derived from the MSDP reach 15 km/s at the edges of the prominence and are between +/- 5 km/s in the center of the prominence. Even though they are minimum values due to seeing effect, they are of the same order as the transverse velocities. These measurements are very important because they suggest that the verticalstructures shown in SOT may not be real vertical magnetic structures in the sky plane. The vertical structures could be a pile up of dips in more or less horizontal magnetic field lines in a 3D perspective, as it was proposed by many MHD modelers. In our analysis we also calibrate the Hinode H-alpha data using MSDP observations obtained simultaneously.
Evidences to the pulse like origin of double spicules based on Hinode/SOT observations  [PDF]
H. Ebadi
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s10509-013-1559-2
Abstract: We analyze the time series of H$\alpha$ line obtained from Hinode/SOT on the solar limb. The wavelet analysis shows that there are nice correlations between dynamical properties of the two parts of a double spicule. The dominant periods for height variations are estimated ~90 and ~180 s. The length of two parts of the spicule oscillates with the period of around ~180 s. The mean distance between two parts of the spicule has a periodical treatment with the period of ~90 s. Our results show that the strong pulses may lead to the quasi periodic rising of chromospheric plasma into the lower corona in the form of spicules. The periodicity may result from the nonlinear wake behind the pulse in the stratified atmosphere.
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