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Searching for the trigger of the AGN QPO: 8 years of RE J1034+396  [PDF]
Matthew Middleton,Phil Uttley,Chris Done
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19185.x
Abstract: RE J1034+396 is one of the most extreme Narrow-line Seyfert 1s detected thus far, showing the only quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) reliably detected in an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). Comparison with similar spectral and timing properties observed in the black hole X-ray binary (BHB) GRS 1915+105 suggests that RE J1034+396 is a super-Eddington accretor. A more complete understanding of the behaviour of RE J1034+396 can therefore lead to a unification of the accretion physics between such extreme AGN and super-Eddington BHBs. Here we report on our latest XMM-Newton observations of RE J1034+396, which no longer show the QPO, indicating that this source shows a non-stationary power-spectrum. We use spectral and temporal analysis across all five XMM-Newton observations of the source to probe the evolution of the object. The combination of the shape of the fractional variability with energy and the inferred velocity of absorbing material in the line-of-sight rules out an absorption-only method of creating the QPO. Instead the periodically changing absorption may be produced by the QPO causing a change in ionization state. We extend our analysis by including the covariance spectra which give much better signal to noise than an rms spectrum. These reveal a new aspect of the QPO, which is that there is also a small contribution from a soft component which is hotter than the soft excess seen in the mean spectrum. Folding the lightcurve on the QPO period shows that this component lags behind the hard X-rays. If this is due to re-processing then the lag corresponding to a light travel time across 30 R_g. Some of the remaining observations have similar energy spectra and covariance spectra, but none of them show a significant QPO, so we conclude that none of these features are the trigger for the appearance of the QPO in this object.
Tracking the Evolution of QPO in RE J1034+396 Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform  [PDF]
Chin-Ping Hu,Yi Chou,Ting-Chang Yang,Yi-Hao Su
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/788/1/31
Abstract: RE J1034+396, a narrow-line Seyfert-1 active galactic nucleus (AGN), is the first example of AGNs that exhibited a nearly coherent quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) for the data collected by XMM-Newton in 2007. The spectral behaviors and timing properties of the QPO have been studied since its discovery. We present an analysis of the QPO in RE J1034+396 based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). Comparing other time-frequency analysis methods, the Hilbert spectrum reveals the variation of the QPO period in great detail. Furthermore, the empirical mode decomposition provides band-pass filtered data that can be used in the O -- C and correlation analysis. We suggest that it is better to divide the evolution of the QPO in this observation into three epochs according to their different periodicities. In addition to the periodicities, the correlations between the QPO periods and corresponding mean count rates are also different in these three epochs. Further examining the phase lags in these epochs, we found no significant phase lags between the soft and hard X-ray bands, which is also confirmed in the QPO phase-resolved spectral analysis. Finally, we discuss the indications of current models including a spotted accretion disk, diskoseismology, and oscillation of shock, according to the observed time-frequency and spectral behaviors.
Detection of a QPO in 5 XMM-Newton observations of RE J1034+396  [PDF]
W. N. Alston,J. Markevi?iūt?,E. Kara,A. C. Fabian,M. Middleton
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slu127
Abstract: The X-ray quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) at $\sim 2.6 \times 10^{-4}$ Hz in RE J1034+396 has been robustly observed in the 0.2-10 keV band of one $\sim 90$ ks XMM-Newton observation, but was not detected in subsequent observations. Here, we investigate the power spectral density (PSD) of 8 archival XMM-Newton observations of RE J1034+396, and search for the presence of QPOs in three energy bands: soft (0.3-0.8 keV); hard (1.0-4.0 keV) and total (0.2-10.0 keV). We find a significant detection of a QPO feature in the hard-band PSD of 5 low flux/spectrally-harder observations. The QPO frequency has remained persistent at $\sim 2.6 \times 10^{-4}$ Hz over $\sim 4$ years of observations, though it is no longer detected in the soft band, except in the original observation. This result increases the duration where the QPO is present by a factor of three (now $\sim 250$ ks), allowing for a better understanding of the QPO phenomenon observed in both Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and black hole X-ray binaries (BHBs).
QPO in RE J1034+396: model constraints from observed trends  [PDF]
B. Czerny,P. Lachowicz,M. Dovciak,V. Karas,T. Pechacek,Tapas K. Das
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/372/1/012055
Abstract: We analyze the time variability of the X-ray emission of RE J1034+396, an active galactic nucleus with the first firm detection of a quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO). Based on the results of a wavelet analysis, we find a drift in the QPO central frequency. The change inthe QPO frequency correlates with the change in the X-ray flux with a short time delay. Linear structures such as shocks, spiral waves, orvery distant flares seem to be a favored explanation for this particular QPO event.
X-ray Reverberation close to the black hole in RE J1034+396  [PDF]
Abderahmen Zoghbi,Andy Fabian
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19655.x
Abstract: In previous work, we discussed the detection of reverberation delays in the NLS1 1H0707-495. The delays originate close to the black hole. Here, we show that RE J1034+396 shows very similar lag properties. At low frequencies (< 1 \times 10-4 Hz), the time lag between energy bands increases with energy separation, similar to that commonly seen in Galactic black holes and other AGN. At higher frequencies (~ 3.5 \times 10-4 Hz), the soft (< 1 keV) and hard (> 3 keV) bands lag behind the intermediate band (1-3 keV). The simplest interpretation is that the intermediate band is dominated by the direct power-law continuum, while the soft and hard bands are dominated by the relativistically-smeared reflected emission. The low frequency delays are present in both available observations. The high frequency lags are only seen in one observation. In the observation where high frequency reverberation delays are observed, the spectrum contains a power-law component and there is a QPO in the light curve. In the other observation, no power-law component is required and no QPO is seen. The lags originate a few gravitational radii from the black hole, and the QPO is associated with the power-law emitting corona.
The model constraints from the observed trends for the quasi-periodic oscillation in RE J1034+396  [PDF]
B. Czerny,P. Lachowicz,M. Dovciak,V. Karas,T. Pechacek,Tapas Kumar Das
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200913724
Abstract: We analyze the time variability of the X-ray emission of RE J1034+396 -- an active galactic nucleus with the first firm detection of a quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO). Based on the results of a wavelet analysis, we find a drift in the QPO central frequency. The change in the QPO frequency correlates with the change in the X-ray flux with a short time delay. The data specifically suggest a linear dependence between the QPO period and the flux, and this gives important constraints on the QPO models. In particular, it excludes explanation in terms of the orbiting hot spot model close to a black hole. Linear structures such as shocks, spiral waves, or very distant flares are favored.
The host galaxy of a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy RE J1034+396 with X-ray quasi-periodic oscillations  [PDF]
Wei-Hao Bian,Kai Huang
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15662.x
Abstract: Using simple stellar population synthesis, we model the bulge stellar contribution in the optical spectrum of a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy RE J1034+396. We find that its bulge stellar velocity dispersion is $67.7\pm 8$ \kms. The supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass is about $(1-4)\times 10^6 \msun$ if it follows the well-known $\mbh-\sigma_*$ relation found in quiescent galaxies. We also derive the SMBH mass from the H$\beta$ second moment, which is consistent with that from its bulge stellar velocity dispersion. The SMBH mass of $(1-4)\times 10^6 \msun$ implies that the X-ray quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) of RE J1034+396 can be scaled to a high-frequency QPO at 27-108 Hz found in Galactic black hole binaries with a 10 $\msun$ black hole. With the mass distribution in different age stellar populations, we find that the mean specific star formation rate (SSFR) over past 0.1 Gyr is $0.0163\pm 0.0011$ $\rm Gyr^{-1}$, the stellar mass in the logarithm is $10.155\pm 0.06$ in units of solar mass, and the current star formation rate is $0.23\pm 0.016 \msun \rm yr^{-1}$. RE J1034+396 does not follow the relation between the Eddington ratio and the SSFR suggested by Chen et al., although a larger scatter in their relation. We also suggest that about 7.0% of the total \ha luminosity and 50% of the total \oii luminosity come from the star formation process.
An irradiated accretion disk in the narrow-line Seyfert 1 RE J1034+396?  [PDF]
R. Soria,E. M. Puchnarewicz
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05019.x
Abstract: We model the optical to X-ray continuum spectrum of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy RE J1034+396. We show that the flat optical spectrum is consistent with emission from an irradiated accretion disk. The X-ray emission can be modelled with a disk blackbody and a Comptonised component. The temperature at the inner edge of the disk T_{in} = (0.12 +/- 0.02) keV. Using this constraint, we show that the flat optical spectrum is consistent with emission from the irradiatively heated outer part of the accretion disk. We constrain the outer radius of the optically thick disk (R >~ 5 x 10^{16} cm) and the inner radius of the irradiation-dominated region (R >~ 5 x 10^{12} cm). Our optical and X-ray spectral fits indicate a mass 0.6 <~ M <~ 3 x 10^6 M_{sun}, and do not rule out a low (i.e. face-on) inclination angle for the system.
Constraining the black hole mass and accretion rate in the narrow-line Seyfert 1 RE J1034+396  [PDF]
E. M. Puchnarewicz,K. O. Mason,A. Siemiginowska,A. Fruscione,A. Comastri,F. Fiore,I. Cagnoni
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/319775
Abstract: We present a comprehensive study of the spectrum of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy RE J1034+396, summarizing the information obtained from the optical to X-rays with observations from the William Herschel 4.2m Telescope (WHT), the Hubble Space Telescope, the Extreme UltraViolet Explorer, ROSAT, ASCA and BeppoSAX. The BeppoSAX spectra reveal a soft component which is well-represented by two blackbodies with kT of about 60 eV and 160 eV, mimicking that expected from a hot, optically-thick accretion disc around a low-mass black hole. This is borne out by our modeling of the optical to X-ray nuclear continuum, which constrains the physical parameters of a NLS1 for the first time. The models demonstrate that RE J1034+396 is likely to be a system with a nearly edge-on accretion disk (60 to 75 degrees from the disk axis), accreting at nearly Eddington rates (0.3 to 0.7 L_edd) onto a low mass (about 2 million solar masses) black hole (abridged).
The X-ray Binary Analogy to the First AGN QPO  [PDF]
M. Middleton,C. Done
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1063/1.3475248
Abstract: The Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxy REJ1034+396 is so far unique amongst AGN in showing a Quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in its variability power spectrum. There are multiple types of QPO seen in black hole binary (BHB) systems, so we need to identify which BHB QPO corresponds to the one seen in the AGN. A key hint is the `hot disc dominated' energy spectrum of REJ1034+396 which is sufficiently unusual that it suggests a mildly super-Eddington flow, also favoured by the most recent mass estimates for the AGN. This suggests the 67Hz QPO seen occasionally in the mildly super-Eddington BHB GRS 1915+105 as the most likely counterpart, assuming mass scaling of the QPO frequency. This is supported by the fact that these data from GRS 1915+105 have an energy spectrum which is also dominated by a `hot disc' component. Here we show that the underlying broad band power spectral shape and normalisation are also similar, providing further consistency checks for this identification. Thus the AGN QPO adds to the growing evidence for a simple mass scaling of the accretion flow properties between stellar and supermassive black holes.
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